The Reception of Greek Culture in East Asia

 

Furnari Rosa Isabella

Cataniafs University  in Sicily- Italy

 

The Greek geographers from the sixth century B.C. had produced a series of reports about India and lands unknown to them. Authors such as Herodotus, (c. 484–425 BC.); Ctesias of Cnidus (who lived in the 5th century B.C. ); Megasthenes, (ca. 350 – 290 B.C.) etc. had talked about giant ants, griffins, unicorns etc. and imagined that India, the islands, and in general the fabulous East were inhabited by animals and fantastic creatures, for example men with dogs' heads, men with ears so big that you can use them as a blanket, etc.

Then, during the Middle Age, these stories spread through Europe thanks to a book known as the Physiologus (that dated back to the third century A.D. ) which made known these myths to the Europeans and influenced the reports of the medieval travelers that were written when Europeans restarted travelling to Asia, after a long period of closure.

 The Physiologus became the source for the various Bestiaries or "books of beasts." What distinguishes these people from men living in Europe is mainly the area of origin. The monstrous races always live in distant lands, such as India, Ethiopia, Cathay, places with uncertain boundaries for medieval men, but whose name always evokes mystery. The first major step in opening the Silk Road between the East and the West came with the expansion of Alexander the Greatfs empire into Central Asia (329 B.C.). Through these contacts is easy to imagine that some of the myths of Greek origin have reached China transported by merchants who loved telling stories. Years later that followed the conquering of Asia by Alexander, in several Chinese documents, and stands out among all the Shan Hai Jin, (Classic of Mountains and Seas: a pseudo-scientific treatise that collects news geographic and ethnographic during the Han Dynasty -II century BC.) we can find monstrous populations allocated on the border with China of that time, significantly coinciding with those fantasized by the Greek authors. These myths reached Japan from China; and from the 17th century, we have some interesting works such as the Wakan Sansaizue: a Japanese encyclopedia published in 1712 in the Edo period.

 

 

Life is a Cabaret: Towards a Theory of Butô and the Burlesque

 

Bruce Baird

University of Massachusetts Amherst

 

The dance form butô has shocked and enthralled audiences around the world, and become one of postwar Japanfs most important contributions to the world of performing arts. Perhaps no aspect of butô is more interesting from an academic standpoint than the fact that for three decades the performers made their living not from their avant-garde dances, but rather from nightly burlesque performances. This presentation seeks to progress toward a unified theory of butô and burlesque by examining the relationship between the two. I start with a brief introduction about the burlesque activities of the dancers and how they evolved over time. Following the introduction, specifically I consider how the burlesque shows were used to support a communal life-style by providing room, board and tuition for dancers, as well as how the burlesque shows could be used to raise money for the expenses associated with performance such as equipment, advertising, costume, and stage design costs (and I contrast this with the then-current iemoto system that underpinned other arts). Then I consider the way that burlesque performances could provide a foothold in different markets as butô expanded internationally. Finally, I explore resonances between the burlesque performance and the butô performances themselves to understand how the actual performing styles influenced each other.

 

 

Mushrooms in the Anime forest:

When atomic explosions first appeared in Japanese tv series for children

 

Marco Pellitteri
Japan Foundation Research Fellow
, Kobe University

 

In the mid-1970s, in many Japanese animated series for children and teenagers the graphic presence of atomic or atomic-like explosions—systematically shaped as mushrooms clouds of fire, smoke and debris—began to appear as a heyday scene. This paper tries to explore the main features of this trend, offering some interpretations of it through (1) the history of anime dealing with war and trauma, (2) the analysis of the ways these explosion scenes are contextualized in the general narrative, (3) the possible connections between culture and politics in the 1970s Japan and the symbolic narratives deployed in particularly representative series, (4) and interviews conducted by the author with prominent Japanese animators: Sayoko Kinoshita, Toshio Hirata, Tomoharu Katsumata, Rintaro, Kenji Kamiyama. The approaches of this paper are cultural- and mass media sociology, with a combination of film analysis, history of culture, and in-depth interviews.

 

 

The oyatoi gaikokujin (قOl) and the scientific modernization of Japan

 

Giovanni Borriello

History and Institutions of Asia

University of Roma Tre, Italy

 

A peculiar aspect of the history of Japan in the 19th century is the governmentfs employment of thousands of foreigners to aid its modernization. While Japanfs leadership drew heavily on the resources of other nations, at the same time they marshaled indigenous resources, selected from among the successful Nineteenth-century Western models of modern development, adhered firmly to a policy of Japanese control and management, assumed total responsibility for the cost of modernizing, and carried their decision to replace foreigners with trained Japanese as soon as possible. The use of foreign instructors and the sending of Japanese students abroad were two important modernization factors in Meiji Japanfs experience.

The number of foreigners employed in Japan during the Meiji period is difficult to ascertain. Umetani Noboru estimates it as no less than 800. But Ogata Hiroyasu finds about 800 persons who served as teachers alone. Saigusa Hiroto gives the names of 1377 foreigners who contributed to the technical and industrial development of the country. It would be conservative to estimate the total number of oyatoi as somewhere in the range from 1500 to 2000.

Most of the oyatoi were drawn from the four countries that played the most important part in Japanfs foreign relations at that time: Great Britain, France, the United States and Germany.

The research presented in this paper specifically focuses on the contribution of the oyatoi to the scientific modernization of Japan with particular reference to the medical science and to the role of Leopold Mueller (1822-1893), Theodor Hoffmann (1837-1894) and Erwin von Baelz.

 

 

To the problem of iconographical changes in contemporary netsuke.

 

Tatiana Yahiro

 

In this presentation I would like to focus on an iconographical features of contemporary netsuke. Contemporary netsuke's iconography is deeply connected with traditional netsuke of the Edo period. But in netsuke of the modern time we also can find a lot of new subjects, materials, modes of expression.

During the1960's-1970's when American netsuke collector R.Kinsey made frequent visits to Japan, he gave a new impetus to netsuke's development. He pointed that netsukeshi should not make copies of traditional netsuke only, but they had to look for new subjects, new expression methods for contemporary netsuke. Kinsey encouraged them in searching of new methods and subjects, he supported netsukeshi of that time making a lot of orders, researching netsuke, publishing a lot of catalogues. Thus, we can say that the history of contemporary netsuke started at that time due to the efforts of R.Kinsey.

The other person who attracts  attention of the public to contemporary netsuke at the present days is H.I.H. Takamado. She is a patron of a various netsuke exhibitions which are held inside and outside of Japan, she gathers a lot of information about contemporary netsuke carvers and publishes books about them, she gives many lectures about netsuke etc.

Despite the fact, that there are many books and catalogues about contemporary netsuke, the problem of iconographical changes has not been researched deeply. Thus, in my presentation I will try to discuss such questions as how the subjects and materials of contemporary netsuke have been changed to the present time, what was the reason of the changes, what features of traditional netsuke are still kept by modern carvers etc.

 

 

Meaning and work: Lives and livelihood of young artists in Osaka

 

Iza Kavedžija

Osaka University

 

 

This paper is based on an ethnographic study of a group of young artists in Osaka, focusing on their ideas of good life and meaningful work. The research deals with issues of motivation, creativity and uncertainty in everyday life, with specific attention paid to issues of age and life-course. The group in question is a network of young people, mostly in their twenties, engaged in a variety of contemporary art projects. The research was be conducted through participant observation of artists during their daily routines, together with in-depth interviews. The proposed research explores art as work and examines ewhat is it like to be an artistf, in terms of personal experiences and ideas of meaningful work. It aims to critically re-examine received notions of art and work, e.g. art as a creative self-driven activity and work as remunerated, waged employment and a powerful means of socialization. More broadly, work is often tied to moral constructions of personhood (e.g. those not working being considered morally suspect) and ideas about responsible adulthood. Focusing on uncertainties related to work and employment, the  paper touches on existential issues of meaning and purpose in life, for example as encapsulated in the Japanese notion of ikigai, focusing on individual experience issues of responsibility, isolation, and sense of purpose.

 

 

Deconstructing representations of Ono no Komachi as a Japanese femme fatale in contemporary and popular culture

 

Karolina Slawomira Broma-Smeda

University of Warsaw

 

Although Ono no Komachi (ca. 825 – ca. 900) is considered to be a famous court female

poet of the early Heian Period (8-12th c.), not much is known about her actual life. Over the centuries, a historical figure we currently know by name of Ono no Komachi has become an object of various processes e.g. legendarization, marginalization, medievalization, etc. In fact, numerous legends about Ono no Komachi have become so powerful over the ages that they eventually took over any gtrueh image of her, if one ever existed. Her constructed representations are notable in many works of contemporary prose, drama and popular culture, in which Ono no Komachi is usually pictured as a talented poet but also as a beautiful, seductive and coldhearted femme fatale. This paper analyzes representations of Ono no Komachi in modern and contemporary popular culture as represented in the following examples of Japanese literature: a short story Futari Komachi (Two Komachi, 1924) by Akutagawa Ryūnosuke; a nō play, which was recomposed for a modern theatre entitled Sotoba Komachi (Komachi at the Gravepost, 1952) by Mishima Yukio; and an example of anime entitled Chōyaku Hyakunin Isshu: Utakoi (Free Intepretation of Hyakunin Isshu Anthology: Love Poems, 2012). The figure of Ono no Komachi also appears in the title of an Australian play Call Me Komachi (2003), which deals with the enjō-kosai problem (compensated dating) of the modern Japanese society. By analyzing representations of Ono no Komachi in works mentioned above, I aim to explain that various stages of legendarization, medievalization and marginalization processes are responsible for current popular image of Ono no Komachi. In fact, I analyze Ono no Komachifs representations with deconstructive reading strategy, which allows us to define her image of Ono no Komachi in a completely different manner from her popularized representations, namely as femme fatale.

 

 

Images of *ijime* in Japanese popular culture

 

Kamila Sosnowska

Jagiellonian University

 

The proposed paper is a work in progress - it is a part of a research project carried out by the author during her stay as a participant of Japan@Foundation 6-month course for Specialists in Cultural and Academic Fields. The main goal of the paper is to present the various images of *ijime* (bullying) in recent Japanese works of popular culture. This will focus mainly on feature films but will also include Tv dramas and animation (*anime*). The structure will include three main parts - theoretical introduction to the Japanese education system and style of schooling, cinematic and pop-cultural depictions of the problem of *ijime* and its results and a summary of concepts, ideas and further research plans concerning the topic. The social problem of *ijime* is one of the most important and interesting phenomenon in contemporary Japan. As popular culture is aimed primarily at youth, school problems and students are a very common topic of mangas, anime, film, dramas, etc. However, *ijime* as a social problem and symbol of mental and physical violence in Japanese schools has not yet been researched thoroughly in the context of cinematic and cultural context.

 

The Ceramic Art of Miyagawa Kozan I and His Interests in the Japanese Literati Culture

Shinya Maezaki
Ritsumeikan Art Research Center


Miyagawa Kozan I (1842-1916), better known as eMakuzu Kozanf, is the most respected Japanese potter during the Meiji era. He was a son of Makuzu Chozo (1797-1868), one of the leading potters in Kyoto, and learned traditional skills in ceramic production from his youth. Having invited by merchants from Satsuma domain, Kozan I moved to the Yokohama, the countryfs largest trading port, in 1870. Soon, he became famous for vases and jars with sculpted figures of naturalistic birds and animals. The potter continued to produce works in this style until 1890s when he shifted his interests in Chinese style.

Stoneware Basin with a Crab in the collection of Tokyo National Museum is probably Kozan Ifs best-known example from this period. A finely coloured and modelled crab is crawling over a wildly shaped stoneware basin. Previous studies have discussed that this work is the embodiment of ingenious nature of Meiji arts and crafts. It thus became the first Meiji ceramic ware to be registered to an important cultural property in 2002.

This short paper will discuss how naturalism meant in the Meiji era through detailed examination of this type of works by Miyagawa Kozan I. It will reveal that historical documents often criticise his naturalistic approach. The style was merely one of many new approaches experimented in the Modern Japan, and never became the mainstream. Instead, it was Japanese literati culture and its ideologies that always affected the designs of the ceramic art of the Meiji period.

 

 

The Development of "Deaf identity" within Educational Settings in Japan

 

Jennifer McGuire

University of Oxford

 

In many societies, education plays a significant role in the socialization of individuals and affects their identity and personhood. This is especially true in Japanese society, which places a strong emphasis on educational experiences and achievements. For deaf and hard-of-hearing students, their educational path, namely whether they attend a school for the deaf or a mainstreams school, appears to have a significant effect on their identity as teens and young adults. The number of students in Japan at schools for the deaf has rapidly decreased in the past few decades as mainstreaming has increasingly becomes the educational choice of many families. Students who are gkowa sodachih (b炿) or graised orallyh, often have very little to no experience interacting with other deaf and hard-of-hearing students until after completing secondary education. While attending mainstream school, they frequently struggle to communicate with their classmates and teachers. In many cases, it is upon entering university or the workplace that students will first begin to develop a gdeaf identityh. This stage of identity formation typically coincides with the acquisition of Japanese Sign Language and the development of meaningful friendships with deaf and hard-of-hearing peers. On the other hand, students who attend schools for the deaf are socialized in an environment with peers who share a similar background and ability to communicate in sign language. Consequently, their identity begins to form at an earlier stage. These findings are based upon data gathered through participant observation, interviews, and questionnaires during anthropological fieldwork in Japan. While much research has been conducted on gdeaf identityh and education in young people in the North American and European context, this study explores the unique outcomes in the Japanese education system.

 

 

Japanese language learnersf experiences abroad:

social networks, interaction and language usage.

 

Rikki Campbell

Monash University

 

The study abroad experience has long been regarded as important in second language acquisition (SLA) research due to its unique context, offering both formal classroom instruction as well as immersion in the target language. There is a widespread assumption that studying abroad increases direct contact with the target language and culture, and that this ultimately leads to enhanced proficiency. Although many researchers have argued that greater gains in proficiency can be linked to enhanced interaction with native speakers, several studies have also found that many language learners are disappointed with the degree of out-of-class interaction they achieve with native speakers whilst abroad. It is therefore important to gain a better understanding of the study abroad context, and the factors that both positively and negatively influence language learnersf patterns of interaction whilst abroad.

 

Based upon a larger doctoral project, this presentation explores some of the complexities behind Japanese language learnersf interaction and relationship development while on study abroad in Japan. Through analysis of ethnographic interviews, interaction journals, and questionnaire data, this research investigates some of the characteristics of their social networks, factors that promote or inhibit interaction and network development, as well as patterns of language use with speakers of Japanese. This presentation sheds light on the experiences of study abroad students from various programs in Japan, and it is hoped that the findings will offer insight for future program development.

 

 

Motivational Education in the Global Society by IOC*:

Differences in the Learning Environment of Japan, and EU and US

 

Kawan Soetanto

Waseda University

 

I teach at Waseda University, which is one of the top class universities in Japan. Many would think that students here are excellent and active; but that is not the case. Students choose easy credit classes, so that they do not need to challenge themselves.

Learning environment affecting studentfs motivation. At Waseda University, SILS, it is required to go study abroad for a year. At the exchange school abroad, students experience how harsh universities outside of Japan are, and many come back shocked. For a brief moment, students remember how harsh it was overseas, and study diligently. However, by half a year, they become the lazy students they once were again.

The reason behind this may be their studying environment. Japanese universities are terrible environment in terms of motivating their students.

Entering a prestigious university does not ensure a good successful life. One needs to create an environment that will fulfill their ambition to study. From this I have created a teaching method, the Interactive Operational Control (IOC).

Students have been motivated by IOC. More than 10 minutes of tardiness will be regarded as absent, and over 70% of attendance is required. In one lecture, students need to ask at least 2 questions, and presentations and essays are essential. Classes are based around interactive participation and communication. These conditions must be rigorous for the students, but even those who have returned from study abroad wish to attend my class. Because I do not give up on the potential each student has. Some people criticize my method saying, gnothing can be done to students who have lost motivationh, but I believe that would be as cruel as ignoring the student.

 

 

Field Studies on Effective training of Knowledge Innovation at Dr. Soetantofs Classroom

 

Xia Su

Maruwa Transportation Company

 

    University is not only for teaching but also for research. How to train students to create new value, i.e. knowledge innovation, is a very challenging task. A college faculty is required to be a teacher as well as to be a researcher. Normally they rather do research than put more energy to be a good teacher, due to it is vital that a college faculty has research output. Few faculties will educate students to be a researcher at undergraduate level.

    The purpose of this paper is to reveal effective methods of knowledge innovation training through one year field studies at Dr. Soetantofs classroom, Waseda University, comparing with the authorfs graduate school experiences in the UK and Japan.

    Dr. Soetanto has been tutoring his students not only to have critical thinking but also in creativity, such as to be a researcher to publish papers at good journal, to deliver speeches at international symposiums and to acquire patents in the past 30 years in USA and Japan.

    To be his TA (teaching assistant), I witted growth of many students. It is found that six key factors for effective methods of knowledge innovation training in Dr. Soetantofs classes. Meanwhile, it is found teachers play very important role in educate and nourish students to accomplish their goals as a researcher with his/her original work.

@    Having a healthy open mind relationship and communication between teacher and students.

A    Having high aspirations and big dreams.

B    Accomplishing small tasks.

C    Challenging new things.

D    Acquiring intrinsic motivation.

E    Setting academic goals such as release of papers, etc.

    Some of Dr. Soetantofs students continuously pursue their academic life after graduation. These show the effective training of knowledge innovation given by Dr. Soetanto.

 

Repetitions and repair in Japanese conversations between nonnative and native speakers:

A case of interaction in a homestay setting


Sae Bando

Waseda University


The current study investigates the use of repetition and repair in conversations between native speakers (NS) and non-native speakers (NNS) of Japanese by analyzing one case of interaction in a homestay setting. Through an analysis of a ten-minute audio-recorded conversation that compared the total number of repetitions by the three participants (2 NSs/1 NNS), I found that repetition by NS and NNS is formed in various ways and functions differently to develop conversations. In addition, I focused on a particular type of repetition, repeat-formatted repair, and qualitatively analyzed how it was being presented and utilized. Findings suggest 1) both NS and NNS need to be aware of how repetition is employed in NS-NNS interaction and 2) interaction in informal settings provides potential opportunities for L2 learners to practice language management through repetition when there is a problem.

 

 

Cross-cultural rush: approaches to easing English conversation with foreign visitors on interesting facts about Tokyo

 

Vilma Suero

J.F. Oberlin University

 

The amalgamation of recent events in Japan could be viewed as a milestone towards furthering bilingualism across current and future generations. Namely, the 2011 MEXT renewed commitment to developing Japanese studentsf aptitudes towards foreign language-based communication and cross-cultural understanding, together with the recent confirmation of the Tokyo Olympics, represent a fortuitous combination of challenge and opportunity for Japanese secondary and tertiary students.  In facing the challenge of welcoming thousands of English speaking visitors appreciative of Japanese culture, and while focusing on university students, a question emerges on what kind of strategies could be explored and implemented to help students achieve the above mentioned goals in their immediate academic environment?  When addressing this question, it is necessary to consider the issue of anxiety and reticence towards engaging foreign students around them (e.g. exchange students) with the purpose of also identifying actionable tactics to overcome these emotional barriers. Conversely, and considering gaps in conversational interests born out of a lack of mutual awareness, the author proposes that equipping university English learners with key conversational points of interest (CPI) and the functional language to express them, while activating the language knowledge they already have, would ultimately  provide young Japanese adults with communication tools helpful not only in the strictly academic cross-cultural settings presented here but also in their future as they enter the global working society. Accordingly, using iconic cultural elements such as kabuki and yukata, this study presents the first round of findings emerging from a step-wise qualitative study carried out among students at two major universities located in western Tokyo with  the objective of identifying strategies to promote cross-cultural engagement. The results reveal how students could, by activating and gsimplifyingh knowledge, better engage in cross-cultural English-based conversations aimed at exchanging information on Japanese culture and history.

 

 

Social studies lesson design and protocol for JSL children: cultural code,mother tongue and mother culture,and learning style

Kihachiro Sakai

Ousu primary school in Nagoya City

 

Many gJapanese as second languageh(JSL)children began attending school after the Immigrant law was changed in 1990.However,many of these children face challenges with regard to their education. Japanese Society is becoming increasingly multicultural. However,thus far in social studies education ,lesson design tends to cater for students in general.

To enhance the design of social studies lesson for JSL children,this study focuses on

@    cultural code@Amother tongue and mother culture, and@Blearning style.

The author then tries to clarify the challenges experienced by JSL children and ways to

enhance understanding of social studies content.

The following conclusions were drawn:

1 Vocabulary (two Kanji idioms)and differences in cultural code pose challenges with regard to social studies.

2 A lesson protocol or plan designed according to principles of mother tongue and culuture can enhance the understanding of social studies content. For example,using  advertisements of Brazilian grocery stores is  an effective means to not only interest the JSL students from Latin America,but also deepen social cognition.

3 Teaching JSL students and parents is an effective learning style,which suggests the possibility of cooperative learning.

(182 words:excluding title)

Key words;JSL,culutural code, mother tongue and mother culture, learning style,cooperative learning

 

 

School Excursion and the Intellectual Exchange in Meiji Era:

A Case of Beginning of Kumamoto-Okinawa Relations

 

Ayumi Matsunaga

Institute of Policy Research, Kumamoto City, Fellow

 

The purpose of this study is to show the beginning of Kumamoto-Okinawa relations in the educational field in Meiji Era.This study is an investigation of Kumamoto Normal Schoolfs school excursion to Okinawa in Meiji era. The excursion was operated from April 9 to 27 in 1894.  This was the first school excursion in Okinawa. There were three purposes in the trip; to acquire new knowledge, to bear hardship and to build a relationship of trust with Okinawa students. Eiji Kondo who was one of the Kumamoto Normal School students wrote gOkinawa Shugaku Ryoko Nisshih (1894). In the document, he described not only trip itinerary but also his impression of other regions. Throughout the trip, the students observed and learned geography, history, plant, language, manners and customs. It was worthy of notice that the students mingled with Okinawa Normal School students and Okinawa Junior High school students at a convivial party. They opened their hearts to know each other and talked their future and future on their country. This study focuses the exchange of two localsf students in the school excursion. That was the beginning of the relationship between two locals, Kumamoto and Okinawa in the field of education. Some Okinawa students who graduated from Okinawa Normal School and Okinawa Junior High school went on to Higher Middle School. Some of them went to the Fifth Higher Middle School (Kumamoto). Later after World War U, under the American Military Government, there were few high schools in Okinawa although many Okinawa students (including

students from isolated islands and girls) wanted to go to schools. They went to Kumamoto to look for educational environment. The study concludes the intellectual exchange gave Okinawa students a desire to learn.

 

 

Active Listening for creating poetry

 

Tomoko Nakashima and Hiroko Nakajima

Kobe University of Health and Welfare, Fukuyama Heisei University

 

     No one can dispute the fact that active listening is important, especially to those who are in a disadvantaged position, such as children and the elderly.  But is there a possibility that active listening plays an important role in the field of poetry?

     This research examines the poems created utilizing active listening.  Some poems that are examined here are quoted from the poetry column, gMorning Poemh in the Sankei Newspaper, and also the literary column in the Kobe Newspaper.  Other poems have won awards in various poetry contests.  The poets are Chiyo Tanaka, Masano Nakashima, and Sayaka Nakajima. They range from six to 101 years old.

     In addition, some poems by Tomoko Nakashima are examined because active listening is the background to her poetry, and some award-winning poems in the gChildrenfs poetry contest Arimoto Housui Prizeh because they are the result of collaborations between teachers and children.  Active listening plays an important role in the creative process.

     Through our research it becomes clear that active listening can be useful for creating poetry.   It is hoped that people will learn that it is indeed possible for children and the elderly to be great poets.

 

 

Escape from Identity in Tawada Yokofs gPersonah

 

Charles Cabell

Toyo University

 

Is Tawada Yoko (1960- ) Japanese? The very fact that such a question arises reflects how her life and writing call into question common assumptions about nation, culture and identity. Born in Japan, Tawada has spent much of her adult life in Germany where she writes in German and Japanese. Her writing may be viewed as part of a postmodern artistic movement that emerged around the 1970s and 80s to challenge structures of modern knowledge. In Tawadafs literature, estranged characters inhabit gin-betweenh spaces, blurring and extinguishing boundaries that delineate culture, language, body and identity.

Here, I take up gPersonah (1990) and the wanderings of its protagonist Michiko, a young Japanese woman living in Hamburg with her brother while studying German immigrant literature. Early in the story, a male Korean nurse Seonryon Kim is accused of raping a mentally disturbed German patient, providing an impetus for various staff to expound on gthe Asian characterh and introducing Tawadafs preoccupation with representation and signification. The question appears again at the end of the story as Michiko wanders through the red-light district of Hamburg, wearing a Noh mask made in Spain, searching for the Chinese characters gGolden Dragon,h the same characters that comprise the name Seonryon Kim (Become Dragon Gold). As these brief examples suggest, Michikofs wanderings trigger varying degrees of sexual, physical, linguistic and philosophical intermingling with her brother, pupil, and group of housewives (Japanese); friend, boyfriend, clerk and housewife (German); black men (foreign), and several refugees (Vietnamese and Eastern European). The instability of Michikofs (and Tawadafs) position/identity is reinforced by constant movement within a loosely structured, unresolved narrative characterized by highly sensorial imagery.

Participants interested in issues connected with identity, language, representation, gender, nation, culture, postmodernity, women writing and Japanese literature may be interested in this talk.

 

 

 

Watanabe Junichi and the Literature of Love

 

Maji Rhee

Waseda University

 

In contrast to Watanabe Junichifs popularity in Japan, the literary reputation of the writer has been limited in the English speaking academia.  This paper explores Watanabe Junichifs one of the most renowned novels titled, Shitsurakuen or A Lost Paradise in English.  A Lost Paradise was published in 1997 and was made into a film in the following year.  Translations into Korean and Chinese have surpassed the sensation in Asia and made the author himself a Japanese icon romance writer. 

 

A Lost Paradise as the text is the cultural narratives of Japan in the 1990s.  The novel was originally published as a series in the newspaper novel section in the Japan Financial Times from 1996 to 1997.  The majority of readership of JFT is businessmen although there is a growing number of subscription by the career-track women.  The novel predominantly presents the hero, Kukifs strong belief in romance and true love through Rinkofs nascent desire.  

 

Her body starts out young and inexperienced, tight as a bud, gradually loosening and

becoming more pliant until one day it bursts into bloom like a gorgeous flower. 

By participating in that process, enabling a woman to blossom, a man sees confirmation

of how deep a mark he has left on her.  Knowing this creates a satisfaction that can

give his life a new meaning (Watanabe, 1997, p.27).

 

The semiotics of A Lost Paradise reflects three cultural dialectic elements: Japanese archetype of love, modernity and post-modernity.  The semiotic basis of the novel rests in the concept of love-suicide.  A Lost Paradise ends by a love-suicide which manifests a traditional archetype of unfulfilled love in Japan.  The novel then adopts patriarchal discourse toward the womanfs desire.  The novel published in JFT last cover page of roman-feuilleton or a column for the newspaper novels is a signifier of power, yet, the heroin, Rinko is portrayed as a post-modern Ibsenfs Nora.  Thus, in this paper, A Lost Paradise is analyzed from three angles: traditional archetype, modernity, and post-modernity.  The analysis focuses on Rinkofs body and desire employing the logic of desire in Lancan and the theory of abjection advocated by Julia Kristeva. 

 

 

Rebellious With Grace: The Subtle Charisma of Selected Contemporary Authors and What Japanese Women Owe to Them

|The case of Setouchi Jakuchô (˓⒮), Kirishima Yôko (˓mq) and Yu Miri ()|

 

Muriel Jolivet

Sophia University, Tokyo

 

At first glance the three authors seem to have nothing in common, but they do share of few characteristics. One could say that they have consciously used the scandal their unconventional way of life has aroused, showing Japanese women that they had a way out and a possibility to control their lives. Their unconventional lives enabled them to play a leading role in challenging what was perceived as gappropriateh.

These strong women stirred up a hornetfs nest, refusing to conform to what was considered to be the path to womenfs happiness and paid dearly for going against the tide and for living outside the social norms.

Setouchi Jakuchofs sexual awakening meant leaving a secure but unhappy marriage, but this also turned out to be the only path for her talent to bloom.

Although Kirishima Yôko was not a single mother by choice, her popularity stems from the fact that she paved the way by showing that single mothers could not only thrive with three children, but could also make the most of life, writing best-sellers and traveling around the world.

In displaying the family dysfunction which was her lot, Yu Miri |another single mother|showed that the ghappy familyh was not always the norm and could lead to gliving hellh instead. She is yet another living example that one can be a victim without falling back into the doomed cycle.

This work in progress, to be published in French, is based on research documented by interviews with all three authors in Kyôto, Tokyo and Kamakura. Suggestions from the audience are most welcome.

 

 

Living eFukushimaf: Wagō Ryōichifs poesy of disaster

 

Kristina Iwata-Weickgenannt

Nagoya University

 

Just a few days after 3.11, the Fukushima-based poet Wagō Ryōichi began to articulate his disaster experiences via poetic verses. His rather coincidental choice of Twitter as medium of publication sparked an unprecedented poetry boom. Before long, the number of Wagōfs followers soared from less than ten to a few thousand; his first three volumes of disaster poetry published in June 2011 sold exceptionally well; and the poet has since been invited to numerous charity events in and outside Japan. However, support for Wagō was not unanimous. Critics include Kishida Masayuki who accuses Wagō of downplaying of the dangers of low-level radiation, and compares his verses to wartime poetry propagating a spirit of self-sacrifice. This ambivalent reception gives proof of the inherently political character of disaster art and underlines the need for a discussion of positionality.

In my presentation I argue that contrary to Kishidafs interpretation, Wagōfs disaster art can be read as explicit distancing from national discourse and assertion of a localized Fukushima identity. Focusing on his constructions of ehomef and loss thereof, I draw parallels to zainichi diaspora literature. These parallels are further explored by a comparison with zainichi writer Yū Mirifs account of the Fukushima disaster.

 

 

The Influence of American literature on Haruki Murakami: A Reconsideration

 

Kenichi Sato

Tokyo University of Science

 

So far there have been many studies of the influence of American literature on Haruki Murakami. In fact, Murakami himself has willingly admitted the influence he has had especially from Fitzgerald, Salinger, and Carver. The relationship between the literature of Murakami and American literature is, therefore, self-evident and it is quite easy for us to detect the traces of it in his works.

     This presentation, based on the previous studies, tries to offer a new perspective on the relationship of the literature of Haruki Murakami and American literature. While the previous studies have exclusively emphasized the one-way influence of American literature on Murakami, this study focuses on the reciprocal relationship between them. In so doing it not only considers how the so-called Haruki world is informed by the works of American literature, but also speculate how the discourse on American literature and/or on the United States itself in the post WWII Japan in turn are informed by the Haruki-world. This will reveal Murakamifs (accidental) contribution on the formation of representation of gAmericah in post WWII Japan and trace the dynamic process of shaping gAmericannessh in Japanese society.

     It is rarely known in Japan the fact that Murakami wrote the introduction of the collected short stories of Akutagawa Ryunosuke in 2007, or that on an issue of The New Yorker that was published right after the Great East Japan Earthquake carried Murakamifs novella gUFO in Kushiroh as mourning for the victims. Paying attention to such less famous texts by Murakami in English, this presentation hopes to give new perspectives on the shaping of gAmericannessh in post WWII Japan, as well as in Murakamifs works.

 

 

Rediscovering Japan Through the Works of Shoyo Tsubouchi

 

Takeo Fujikura

Waseda University

 

Dr. Shoyo Tsubouchi was a prominent figure known for a wide range of pioneering activities within both literature and theatre in Japan. In 1885, he published Shosetsu Shinzui, the first book on Japanese systematic literary theory, in which he introduced the Western concept of the novel as having an aesthetic value that was independent of the moral objectives of the Japanese novel. He initiated a Kabuki genre called Shin (or New)-Kabuki in which he incorporated the technique of characterization into Kabuki dramaturgy. He organized Bungei Kyokai, the first literary society of Western drama in Japan, in 1906; he later started the first theatre-training conservatory to incorporate Western acting techniques, and introduced Shakespearian and Ibsenian plays to the Japanese stage. By 1921, Tsubouchi had turned his energy to the establishment of a gchild dramah movement in order to demonstrate dramafs educational value for children. He was also the first person to translate the entire Shakespearean canon into Japanese .

 

Throughout these endeavors, Tsubouchi continued to oppose the rigid social prejudices against drama and literature embodied in the deeply rooted Confucian aesthetics that persisted after 230 years of a national isolationist policy. But at the same time, Tsubouchi himself experienced internal conflict due to the artistic and aesthetic perceptions that had been drilled into him as a Meiji person. As a result, in his practice he often contradicted his own theories. Thus, by researching his both his external and internal struggles, we can begin to gain insight into many of the persistent characteristics of Japanese values and aesthetics.  In this paper I attempt to show the value of studying Tsubouchifs endeavors as a means of understanding the uniquely pre-modern Japanese mentality and values that tenaciously dominated and influenced Japanese aesthetics as they were reflected by both literature and dramatic practice in Japan.

 

 

About phrasemes in Old Japanese

 

Ekaterina Levchenko

International Research Center for Japanese Studies

 

     This research is dedicated to detailed analyses of lexemes from the earliest Japanese written sources (songs of the Kojiki, Nihon Shoki and Manfyōshū). To understand inter-word connections in the abovementioned sources, it was  necessary for me to make new word-by-word translations of the Kojiki and Nihon Shoki songs. There are several reasons for that. Above all, literary translations call for euphonic English at the expense of fidelity to the original Japanese text. Linguistic analyses require translations that preserve to the maximum possible extent the flavor and the actual semantics of the songs. As for the Manfyōshū, I used academic translations into English from the original manfyōgana, which were done by Prof. Alexander Vovin.

     Using the abovementioned translations I gathered word combinations that fit the definition of phrasemes – a term coined by the Canadian linguist, Prof. Igor Melfčuk, which is as equally applicable to phrases in Old Japanese. Phrasemes are considered to be of two types: lexical phrasemes and semantic-lexical phrasemes. Natural language has three major classes of phrasemes: idioms, collocations and clichés. Idioms are non-compositional, while collocations and clichés are compositional. As an example, I analyzed (morphologically, syntactically and semantically) the expression nubatama no yo, which has the direct meaning of a gblack-lilied nighth while it semantically it refers to a deep black night. This expression seems to be a phraseme, of the collocation class.  

     In the future I would like to study these phrasemes diachronically, by expending my analyses to include the Kokinwakashū, Shinkokinwakashū, etc.

 

 

Rivals or allies in Japanese court poetry?

Appropriation of Manfyōshū in poetry of Rokujō and Mikohidari school members

 

Małgorzata Karolina Citko

University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa

 

The first collection of Japanese poetry, entitled Manfyōshū (MYS, Ten Thousand Leaves, ca. 759-782) has been annotated, studied and translated by many generations of scholars around the world. The MYS is an important subject matter for the field of waka studies, since it lies at the source of Japanese literary history, and it has always aroused much interest and controversy among Japanologists. The MYS became an object of scholarship early in the history and already by the medieval era, when numerous poetic circles and schools emerged and poetry became entwined in court politics, knowledge about the MYS has been believed rather exclusive to the Rokujō poetic school. However, as it turns out, MYS was also an object of interest for the Mikohidari house poets, e.g. Fujiwara Shunzei (1114-1204) and Fujiwara Teika (1162-1241), believed to be Rokujō rivals, who extensively studied the Heian Period masterpieces, e.g. the Genji Monogatari (The Tale of Genji, ca. 1008) by Murasaki Shikibu (ca. 970-ca. 1014), or the Makura no Sōshi (The Pillow Book, ca. 1002) by Sei Shōnagon (ca. 964–ca. 1027).

This paper examines the appropriation of MYS poetry in selected poetic examples of Rokujō Kiyosuke (1104-1177) and Kenshō (ca. 1130-ca. 1210) (Rokujō), Fujiwara Shunzei and Fujiwara Teika (Mikohidari), as well as some other poets closely associated with both schools. The results of this paper hopefully demostrate that, as opposed to a general belief about the Rokujō and Mikohidari houses to be rivals having poetically not much in common, there are significant similarities in the appropriation of MYS poetry in works of both schoolsf members. Thus, as much as Rokujō and Mikohidari seem to represent different stages of evolution in the  appropriation of MYS poetry, they also appear to be more allies than rivals in Japanese court poetry.

 

 

Yurikawa Daijin: On the Possibility of the Story Transmission

 

Khalmirzaeva Saida

Hosei University

 

Alpomish, a narrative known in Central Asia from the 11th century AD at the latest, and the medieval Japanese narrative Yuriwaka Daijin, mostly known as one of the texts in the repertory of the kōwakamai, not only share remarkable motif similarities, but also demonstrate a parallel in the sequence in which the motifs occur. In both Alpomish and Yuriwaka Daijin the hero, who leaves his land to fight an enemy, returns home after years of seclusion only to find his family being harassed by traitors. The herofs appearance has changed beyond recognition, which is why no one, even his loyal servant, can recognize him. For a time the hero observes what has occurred during his absence, finally revealing his identity by stringing his distinctive bow, punishing the traitors and reuniting with his family.

The similarity of motifs in Alpomish and Yuriwaka Daijin has been pointed out by such famous Japanese scholars as Ōbayashi Taryō and Fukuda Akira, but a thorough comparative research aimed at establishing possible connections between the two stories has never been undertaken, possibly due to lack of available information on Central Asian narratives. 

The aim of this paper is to explore possible connections between Alpomish and Yuriwaka Daijin based on principles of transmission theory. Firstly, a comparative analysis of several existing variants of Alpomish and Yuriwaka Daijin will be accomplished in order to demonstrate similarities and differences between the two stories, and to establish the particular variant of Yuriwaka Daijin closest to the story of Alpomish. Secondly, a possible route of transmission of the story of Yuriwaka Daijin to Japan will be suggested.

This paper might not only shed light on the origins of Yuriwaka Daijin, but also contribute to a better understanding of the history of cultural exchange between Central Asia and Japan.

                                                                                                                                             

 

Panel Theme:

Ecotourism, Traditional Knowledge and Landscape Conservation in Contemporary Japan: A Reappraisal

 

Presenters:

Abhik Chakraborty

Takayuki Arima

Munehiko Asamizu

Shamik Chakraborty

 

 

This panel draws on two broad themes, landscape conservation and traditional knowledge--and analyzes these themes through accounts of ecotourism activities in contemporary Japan. The panel opens with a general paper on egeotourismf as a special form of nature-based and conservation oriented tourism, mainly shaped by the demographic transition and reappraisal of rural landscapes. This presentation is followed by three case studies:

Takayuki Arima analyzes the challenges ecotourism faces in so called eparadise areas, through an analysis of the Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands

Munehiko Asamizu observes how ehistorical trailsf rooted in local culture are emerging as a major focal point of rural tourism in contemporary Japan by analyzing the case of Mine City in Yamaguchi Prefecture, a remote and emountainousf region challenged by demographic decline and lack of business and traffic infrastructure.

In the final presentation, Shamik Chakraborty re-emphasizes the dichotomy of nature conservation and resource usage by exploring the epuzzlef of how local fisheries continue to be degraded in the Himeshima Island in Oita--despite the presence of apparently robust local institutions and abundant traditional knowledge of managing resources.

The panel aims to describe the dynamism of nature conservation oriented tourism in todayfs Japan, and also critically analyze some of its main challenges. In doing so, it aims to initiate dialog in the academic community on what is surely going to be a major research theme in Japanese Studies in the near future.

 

 

Geotourism: A New Paradigm in Nature Conservation in Contemporary Japan

 

Abhik Chakraborty

Visiting Researcher, Mountainous Region Research Center

 

This paper analyzes geotourism as a special form of ecotourism that is gaining popularity in contemporary Japan. During the later years of the twentieth century, Japanese countryside areas began witnessing swift aging and depopulation, and today, the country stands out as one of the most conspicuous examples of swift demographic transition. Numerous forms of nature based tourism (NBT) activities have arisen as a direct consequence of this transition, and rural and semi-wild landscapes have re-emerged as a key policy focus. Japan has a long history of national parks, and there are several well-known landscapes registered as UNESCO World Heritage Sites (natural and cultural). The latest addition in this type of tourism is egeotourismf, which aims to conserve eheritagef landscapes, beautiful natural vista, or key cultural components associated with communal resource management. To date, there are 6 geoparks in the country registered with the Global Geoparks Network (GGN) under UNESCO, and numerous others accredited as geoparks einside Japanf. A prominent theme is the dynamism of volcanic landforms. Geoparks also have a mandate to further the understanding of natural processes, which is seen as a key for appreciating naturefs dynamic capacities--and conserve these functions as well as the landscapes concerned. This paper, by analyzing two case sites, the San-in Coastal Geopark (Japan Sea Coast) and the Toya Caldera-Usu Volcano Geopark (Hokkaido)--finds that geoparks add two significant components to nature based tourism: firstly, due to the extensive size of most sites, they have excellent potential to emerge as focal themes for holistic nature conservation, and secondly, they tend to promote academic research on landforms and their association with human societies. The paper adds that these important mandates must be seen as a key feature of a society evolving through advanced demographic transition.

Keywords: Geoparks, Geotourism, Nature conservation, Demographic transition

 

 

Ecotourism development on Ogasawara Islands, Japan:

Influences of Self-imposed Rules and UNESCO World Heritage Site Status

 

Takayuki Arima

Tokyo Metropolitan University

 

Ogasawara Islands are one of the major ecotourism destinations in Japan. The islands are isolated to the mainland of Japan so that the untouched nature has been protected, and residents on the islands are living with works related with ecotourism. This presentation introduces the regional characteristics with noteworthy tourism development on the islands. Firstly, the characteristics of residents are discussing on this presentation. Types of the residents are three types: that are American-Japanese, former, post residents. The islands were occupied by U.S. after WW2 to 45 years ago so that some of the residents are inherited Hawaiian gene as American-Japanese. After 45 years ago, the former residents, who have own lands in the islands, and new residents were back. Secondary, this presentation explains that several rules for community-based ecotourism management and the management of nature apply on the islands. Especially, institutional management on Minami-jima Island has been successfully implemented by using the management rules. Thirdly, the situation of tourism industry on the islands is discussed. On the ecotourism development, the paper observes that accommodations, restaurants and tour guides exhibit a somewhat positive trend. The prices are not different in this 20 years except accommodationsf prices. The average price of the accommodations is going up by 1,000yen in 5 years. So, the islandfs tourism seems to be going to high price-tourism destination. After the registration of Ogasawara Islands as a World Heritage Site in June 2011, the islands are going to face new challenges for ecotourism development as a result of a changing number and qualities of tourists.

 

 

A Challenge for Rural Tourism Attraction:

Case Study of Mine City, Yamaguchi Prefecture

 

Munehiko Asamizu

Yamaguchi University

 

This paper, by describing the case of Mine City, aims to add to the panel discussion on the growth of alternative tourism pathways in Japan in the contemporary time.  

 

Due to the unique and famous landscapes such as Akiyoshi Do (Akiyoshi Cave) and Akiyoshi Dai (Akiyoshi Karst Plateau), Mine City has been attracted by a lot of tourists. The Safari park near Akiyoshi Dai is also an important tourist attraction in itself. However, the trend in Japanese tourism is changing from group tour to individual travel, and asa consequence these tourist attractions are facing in a hard time.

 

Except for coastal areas which have airports and Shinkansen (high speed railway) stations, public transportation system in Yamaguchi Prefecture is inconvenient. To invite a lot of individual tourists, this inefficient public transportation is a major disadvantage. On the other hand, due to the depopulation of Mine City, development of new public transportation system is not a realistic solution. . 

 

To overcome these disadvantages, a different point of view is called for. Around Akiyoshi Dai, there are a lot of natural and historical walking trails. There are numerous historical heritages from former mining sites dating back to the Nara Period (AD 710-794) to war memorials erected during the Meiji Period (AD 1868-1912) in Mine City. A novel way to overcome challnges posed by inadequate traffic infrastructure is development of walking tours from local centers. Local residents and local university students are supporting these walking events as volunteer staff.    

 

 

Adaptive resource management and its connection to state of fisheries in Himeshima

 

Shamik Chakraborty

 

Himeshima is a small island located in the extreme western part of Seto Inland Sea, 6km off the coast of Kunisaki peninsula. The island is situated near the western border of the Seto-Inland Sea National Park, and has been important due to its healthy marine fisheries, the noted varieties are Himeshima Righteye flounder (PJC), Japanese tiger prawn (ԃGr), Sea bream (), Japanese sea bass (XYL), Japanese rock fish (o) etc. Other seafood include abalone or ear shells (Ar), turban shell (TUG), sea cucumber (i}R) etc. However, fishing activities in the island has been under pressure from a complex set of factors such as pollution of near-shore regions, over-fishing, and unsustainable land use practices. Fishing communities in Himeshima have lived through management (and mismanagement) of the rich fisheries that have declined and degraded severely in the recent past. The decline of fisheries in Himeshima, in spite of communal resource conservation and adaptive ways of resource management, and indigenous fishing activities, still remains a puzzle. This research takes an exploratory approach through in-depth interviews with field observations and tries to understand this puzzle, through the case of Himeshima. The research critically explores the limitations of adaptive ways of resource management  in a small island context.

 

Keywords: Adaptive resource management, small islands, nearshore fisheries, Himeshima, Japan.

 

 

The Impact of Canon of Leke Dukagjini on the Rule of Law in Albania:

A brief Overview

 

Blendi Barolli

Niigata University

 

In present days, there are many discussions between academics, policy-makers and researchers related to Albaniafs candidacy to join EU membership. Because of the past influence of the Turks, some of them consider Albania to be a Muslim country. On the other hand, from a geographical viewpoint, Albanian people consider their country to be an European country, because it is a part of European Continent.

However, experience indicates that historical, cultural, religious and geographical factors are not enough for a country to be a member of EU. According to Article 49 of the Treaty on European Union, any European country may apply for membership if it respects the principles of liberty, democracy, respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, and the rule of law. Accession, however, can only follow if the given European country fulfills all criteria of accession which were fixed by the 1992 Treaty of Maastricht that sets the geographical criteria and the general policy criteria, the 1993 European Council in Copenhagen which was reinforced by the 1995 European Council in Madrid and set political, economic and legislative criteria. But how does the current political, legal and judicial situation, and the rule of law, in Albania measure up to these criteria? What are the main factors that influence to these criteria?

In 2012 European Commission noted that: gThe rule of law in Albania remains deficient, which is notably due to weak law enforcement institutions, limited administrative capacity and widespread corruption and organized crimeh.

In Albania, the main features of weak rule of law are strongly determined by political and social components. These components are placed in a unique course with features that reflect the past and the present of the country. The laws in Albania are often not observed or are applied selectively and ineffective and inappropriate implementation of laws has also undermined the rule of law in Albania.

Although all of these problems and challenges cannot be treated in this paper, this study is focused on the rule of law, why its enforcement in Albania is a very difficult process, and how the past legacy (Canon of Leke Dukagjini) has influenced its weakness.

 

 

Japan-India Maritime ties in the Indo-Pacific Region:

Strengthening the Kizuna

 

Rupakjyoti Borah

Pandit Deendayal Petroleum University

 

      Japan and India have historical ties dating back to the period when Buddhism travelled to Japan from the country of its origin, India. However, post-independence India and Japan were unfortunately kept apart by the exigencies of the Cold War.

         The importance of the Indian Navy for Japanfs maritime security was made clear by an incident in November 1999 when the Indian Coast Guard and Navy successfully rescued a Japanese-owned tanker MV Alondra Rainbow, which had been hijacked by pirates.   The present Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe during his earlier stint as the Prime Minister had made the importance of maritime cooperation between Japan and India very clear in a landmark speech titled "Confluence of the Two Seas" in the Indian Parliament in 2007. Meanwhile, the attack on the USS Cole in Yemen in 2000 and the Mumbai terror attacks of November 2008 have brought home to the entire world, including Japan and India, the dangers of maritime terrorism.  

      As per the USf EIA (Energy Information Administration), Japan only produces 16 per cent of its total energy requirements and is the worldfs third largest oil consumer after the US and China. Hence it is of critical interest to Japan that the sea lanes of communication in the Indo-Pacific region are kept open and safe and in this region, the Indian Navy has a commanding presence.

      This paper will elucidate how Japan and India can collaborate in the maritime realm in the Indo-Pacific. It will also throw light on the problems plaguing their maritime ties and suggest solutions to the same.  This will hopefully give the maritime ties between the two countries, a very important, but long-neglected area, a fresh lease of life and thereby strengthen the kizuna (bond) between the two countries.

 

 

Okinawans in Mexico at the beginning of the country modernization

 

Emma Mendoza

Osaka University

 

Okinawa immigrant workers arrived to Mexico together with other Japanese workers during the first years of the twentieth century, when the country modernization was beginning, and the Mexican Revolution was soon to start. This migration wave was led by Japanese immigration companies, the Oriental, the Continental and the Kumamoto. After the immigrantsf arrival to Mexico, they were assigned to the mines in northern Mexico, to the railroad works in central region and to the agricultural plantations in the south. Okinawans migrated because they were so oppressed with the heavy tax burden imposed on peasants. They left their hometown and families with the hope to earn a handful of money, and after finishing their two or three year contract period, come back to Okinawa with the chest full of pride. However, the companies deceived the immigrants and profited on them. The daily life of immigrants in Mexico was full of hardships. Many of them perished soon after arriving to the work places due to the frequent accidents that took place in the mines and because of the tropical diseases, malnutrition and unsanitary conditions in the plantations. Others fled to the U.S. or came back to Japan. Those who stayed in Mexico got married to Mexican women and established their living. Among them, some were successful and others not so much. A brief description of their lives will be given here. Finally, I will make some references of the Japanese presence in the areas where they established. They were few those Okinawan immigrant workers who remained in Mexico. However, their work and integration to the Mexican society were part of the country modernization process which deserves to be studied.

 

 

A Study on Characteristic of Japanese Word-of-Mouth

 

Kenji Yoshimi

Waseda University

 

This research focuses on the comparison between online communities, especially word-of-mouth platforms, by using text mining. There are many word-of-mouth platform; the tendency of word-of-mouth is, however, not consistent. For example, the evaluation and word-of-mouth of one book may be different because of differences among platforms.

 It is considered that the evaluation of word-of-mouth are affected by many factors; design of communities, user types, existed-evaluations and so on. By the ways, this research will pay attention only to nationality factor. Nationality is one of the important factors to determine acceptability of the content and it is thought that characteristics of nationality can be measured by the analysis of word-of-mouth platform.

 A world famous book is treated as an example in this research. This paper, additionally, analyses multi-language platform. By comparing same books with different languages, differences among nationalities can be displayed. In one hand, if there are huge differences among languages, it can be assumed that nationality is affecting word-of-mouth. On the other hand, if there is no any big difference, the effect of nationality maybe small.

 Finally, this research aims to clarify the characteristics of Japanese word-of-mouth. In Japan, it is known that consumers are likely to be affected by word-of-mouth. Through this research it is expected to clarify high occurrence words and high co-occurrence words in Japanese word-of-mouth.

 

 

Use of game theory to find economic efficiency in mobile telecommunication

through Facilities-Based and Services-Based Competitions

 

Phirak Leng

Waseda University

With the rapid growth of information and communications technology which enhances effective impacts on economy and society by creating communication efficiency, productivity efficiency and knowledge efficiency the mobile telecommunication industry is, however, still known to face high risks of heavy initial investment under facilities-based competition (FBC) and strong network externalities. These entry barriers cause problems in developing countries related to the development of rural telecommunication and infrastructure, and the introduction of new technological innovations which results in digital divide between urban areas and remote communities (GSMA, 2011). To reduce entry barriers and start-up costs, and to increase competitive efficiency, services-based competition (SBC) has been introduced since last few decades in developed countries. SBC allows entrants to enter market by relying partially or entirely on the facilities or services of other operators including resale of incumbents' wholesale end-to-end products and leasing of unbundled local loops. Nevertheless many countries remain hesitant to start or delay this competition strategy to replace or to complement to the existing FBC strategy. Although many studies have been conducted, neither competition type is proved to be superior to the other under all circumstances; FBC is more effective for dynamic efficiency in finance investment for market growth and technological innovation while SBC is said to be more effective for static efficiency to promote workable competition, service quality and consumer surplus by reducing production costs (Seo, Lee, & Kim, 2008). Therefore, this paper attempts to use the game theory to find out equilibrium or optimum points between FBC and SBC. The payoffs of this game will be calculated from the total surplus of both consumers and suppliers (incumbent and entrant) under a simultaneous strategic game. Either player of incumbent and entrant can use one among independent decision strategies; only FBC, only SBC, or both FBC and SBC.

 

 

Resettlement of Young People to Rural Areas of Japan: Work and Life in the Countryside

 

Ksenia Kurochkina

Waseda University

 

In post-bubble Japan new generation of re-settlers to rural areas has been observed. Since 1990s a number of initiatives for rural revitalization have been undertaken by government throughout the country (Knight, 2003; Thompson, 2003). At the same time, local activists in the countryside endeavor to breathe a new life into rural communities (Hirano, 2013; Moen, 2002). These activities together with changing economic and social atmosphere in the city started to bring newcomers to the countryside of Japan. This paper explores the social group of young people who move from the cities to the countryside to live and work.

 

People who move from the cities to the countryside (I-turn) or returnees with origins in rural areas (U-turn) construct new identities and new working cultures, different both from traditional rural dwellers and from urban corporate workers. This presentation focuses on working lives of new generation of rural re-settlers. What are motivations for counter-urbanization for people who had employment opportunities in the city but preferred to work in the countryside? What kind of career path do they imagine for themselves in the countryside? How do they practically sustain their new lives? In what ways do local communities welcome or constrain newcomers? Young people of Japan creatively navigate their lives through influential images of the past and threats and opportunities of the present. With the example of young rural re-settlers I will show some of the practical choices of workplace and elaborate on their implications. 

 

 

Managing Hope: The Labor of Science in Contemporary Japan

 

Ieva Tretjuka

PhD student, Department of Anthropology, University of Pittsburgh, USA

JSPS Fellow, School of Human Sciences, Osaka University, Japan

 

As a sense of insecurity and uncertainty about the future sustainability of Japan has been increasingly exacerbated in the wake of prolonged economic recession, contemporary political and popular discourses mobilize scientists as innovators of technologies that are not only profitable, but also essential to the continuity of the country. The recent science and technology policies in Japan posit development of gexcellent human resourcesh as one of the bases of scientific innovation. However, while scientists are tasked with the production of technologies that would ensure socio-economic security in Japan's future, their labor conditions are becoming more insecure amidst the increase in performance-based research institutions, focus on short-term projects and flexible employment.

My paper operationalizes the category of ghopeh to investigate meanings scientists imbue in their work in an era of growing socio-economic uncertainty. Based on an ethnographic study among young scientists – those most affected by the transformations in scientific labor regimes – in various public research institutions in Japan, I aim to explore how the daily lives of researchers are permeated with the gcoupling of hope and hopelessnessh (Zigon 2009) regarding their personal work futures. I suggest that, under the conditions of continuous withdrawal of job security and disappearance of permanent work structures, it is the responsibility to hope that allows for the gbargaining with normalcyh (Berlant 2007) among young scientists.

 

 

Trade between Poland and Japan in years 1990-2010

 

Katarzyna@Wolak

Agriculture University in Krakow, Poland

 

Japan is one of the most important Polish non-European trade partners. Highly developed economically Japan has a leading position as a major exporter.

The article focuses on trade between Japan and Poland, in 1990-2010 years. Analysis of exports and imports between Japan and Poland shows big changes in trade with Japan and the large growing difference in the trade balance. Furthermore the imported and exported groups of products show market differences within both Poland and Japan. Within 20 years of trade the major trade products chained, but staidly grown of trade exchange, lead both countries to stronger relationship.

To the end, the paper will draw conclusions about both Polish Japan's economic policy and decision-making toward Poland as a way to develop a better Poland-Japan relationship nowadays.