【Session1-1 Literature and Art 1, Multipurpose Studio/12:30-13:00】
Mecenat Activity and Children’s Literature
Tomoko Nakashima and Yuko Nakajima
Kinki Health Welfare University, Fukuyama Heisei University
In today’s society, children are surrounded by an increasing amount of social problems. Discord, divorce, isolation, abuse, and the like, are many problems that children face more often than ever before. Given such problems, it is essential that society develop and support children’s sentiments by integrating their life at home, school, and within the community. Currently the activities of public bodies are not enough to adequately support children, and those of private enterprises are highly desired.
Himeji Shinkin Bank has been practicing mecenat activities utilizing literature to promote children’s sentiments. Mecenat activities in Japan are often defined as privately sponsored activities or programs that support the community. In 1987, they opened the “Mineari Bunko Library” on the second floor of their new bank building. In addition, in 1989, they started a poetry contest for elementary school children in the Harima Area, the “Children’s Poetry Arimoto Housui Prize.” In Japan there are only three mecenat activities which have a prize contest for children’s poetry.
The purpose of this paper is to examine Himeji Shinkin Bank’s mecenat activities and their effect on children’s sentiments and whether of not such activities promote children’s literature in the community.
Through our research, it became clear that the activities contributed to the promotion and development of both children and children’s literature. The “Mineai Bunko Library” is recognized as “Mother Library“ in the area. As for the “Children’s Poetry Arimoto Housui Prize,” the number of applicants and the rate of application from schools are increasing because the contest is becoming more and more important for children. This activity can be concluded as a successful Mecenat activity thanks to enthusiastic teachers, careful continuous management of Himeji Shinkin Bank, and support from the community.
【Session1-1 Literature and Art 2, Multipurpose Studio/13:00-13:30】
Noh theatre sacred
and profane: a secular approach to ritual.
Italian School of East Asian Studies, Kyoto
Noh theatre is often described as a ritualistic performing art, closer to a religious service than to stagecraft. Noh dramaturgy fuses Buddhist elements, such as ghosts or spirits wandering the realms of rebirth seeking to reach satori, with Shinto elements, such as gods interacting with monks and priests, reflecting a syncretism typical of Japanese religion. Noh performances are part of the religious calendar of many shrines and temples, and Noh actors integrate rituals such as visits to sanctuaries or purifications rites in their artistic practice. Noh appears to be a deeply religious performing art, and this is part of what makes it 'traditional' theatre, as opposed to the secular, western-influenced, 'contemporary' theatre, in which the religious component usually does not occupy a central position. The religiosity of Noh is a fascination factor for those non-Japanese observers who come to Noh theatre attracted by a spiritual dimension and ethics that appear to have lost preminence in other theatre environments. This paper wishes to explore the role of religion and spirituality in Noh theatre practice today, focusing on the reception of non-Japanese observers. Recently much effort has been put in the attempt to disseminate Noh abroad, opening it to new, international spectatorships: how do non-Japanese coming from different cultural backgrounds interact with the religion of Noh? Is the religious component of Noh an obstacle or an aid to their appreciation? To what extent can 'religion as belief' be detached from the artistic medium of performance? The paper will attempt to answer these questions exploring the role and value of religiosity in Noh in the contemporary outset, providing the perspective of a non-Japanese scholar and practitioner.
【Session1-1 Literature and Art 3, Multipurpose Studio/13:30-14:00】
About Woman Beauty in Netsuke
University of Tsukuba
In this research I would like to focus on the theme of imaging of woman beauty in netsuke. The theme was not researched by itself, though studying of the subject and comparing netsuke of 19th century with modern pieces allows revealing new and interesting aspects in netsuke evolution; aspects which difficult to discover studying the other subjects.
Firstly, I would like to mention several types of the subjects in which we can find images of young and beautiful women in traditional netsuke. These are: images of Seiobo as a Chinese beauty; images of Ama with octopus and Okame – they have erotic and humorous interpretation; images of Fugen Bosatsu with applying mitate method; and finally, we can find images of beautiful women in scenes of daily life. This is not common subject for the Edo period, but step by step in netsuke of Taisho-Showa period number of such subjects is increasing.
Turning to contemporary netsuke we can see that the trend of depicting of common women is continuing and becoming stronger. For example, personages made by master Ryushi look like beauties of the Heain period, in colorful kimono, with complex coiffure and in elegant poses.
As for another trend, we can find an influence of European sculpture and ideals of female beauty especially in netsuke made by foreigner masters. We can see features of both figurative and nonfigurative art, and even Japanese traditional art, while traditional subjects which were mentioned above are disappearing gradually.
In conclusion, it is no exaggeration to say that woman beauty in traditional netsuke is connected with specific personages and with specific stories concerning to the personages. In contemporary netsuke beautiful women “lost” their names. They are not historical or literature personages, they are just beautiful women and netsukeshi admire the beauty in itself without any context.
【Session1-2 Literature and Art 4, Multipurpose Studio/14:50-15:20】
Chinese and Japanese Flower Bronzes in the Chiossone Museum, Genoa, Italy
“Edoardo Chiossone” Museum of Japanese Art
The Museum of Japanese Art in Genoa owns a large collection of bronzes (2,000 pieces approx.), which were gathered in Japan during the Meiji period by Mr. Edoardo Chiossone (1833-1898). A Genoese Professor of Design and Engraving, Chiossone came to Japan in 1875 to be employed by the Printing Bureau of the Ministry of Finance, where he made the banknotes and paper values of kindaika’s Japan.
The collection, comprising metalware from China (Shang to Qing period), and Japan (Kofun to Meiji period), has been partially studied, exhibited and published during the past 20 years by the present writer, who is now carrying out an in-depth research at ARC, Ritsumeikan Daigaku, thanks to a 12-month Grant from the Japan Foundation (January 2012 - January 2013).
Flower vases constitute the most numerous typology, exemplifying a wide range of shapes, styles and decorations, and attesting to the evolution of metalworking techniques in China and Japan.
(1) Chinese flower bronzes, 12th-19th centuries. Imported in Japan from the Heian throughout the Meiji period, Chinese vases should be considered as an integral part of the history of Japanese Art. They belong to the special group of collectibles historically known in Japan as karamono, highly valued items that were coveted, sought after, and avidly collected by the ruling class for the zashiki kazari, i.e., for display in the guest-halls of their official residences. Besides representing a novelty in the specific field, several karamono in the Chiossone Museum are comparable with famous pieces kept in Japanese collection of aristocratic origin.
(2) Japanese flower bronzes, 12th-19th centuries. The Japanese pieces attest to the formal and substantial transformations that occurred in Japan in the theory and practice of flower arrangement from the 10th through the 19th century, the earliest piece dating back to AD 971. Worth mentioning is a select group of large flower vases for rikka, signed by prominent imono-shi and ohanaire-shi of the early to the mid-Edo period.
【Session1-2 Literature and Art 5, Multipurpose Studio/15:20-15:50】
The Kōgei Tragedy
21st Century Museum of Contemporary Art, Kanazawa
Kōgei is a word first coined during the Meiji Era. The
myriad handicrafts of precontemporary Japan were appropriated from the
formative process of Bijutsu or fine art and played the roles of boosting
national prestige and bringing in foreign money, in line with the Meiji
government's policy of bolstering the fledgling export industry. The
undefinable, meaning of Kōgei has changed with the whims of the government, as
it dutifully adhered to its mission.
With the end of the Cold War, the bursting of the Bubble Economy, an unparalleled earthquake and tsunami as well as the worst nuclear disaster in history, Japan's very existence as a nation is in danger. Because of this, the tailwinds are once again favoring Kōgei: The Japanese government launched the "Japanism Renaissance" Project in 2009 and set up the "Cool Japan" Promotion Office in 2010. Prominent figures from worlds as diverse as contemporary art and sports, including Yoshitomo Nara and Hidetoshi Nakata, have joined the Kōgei campaign, while at a famous “contemporary art” museum, the director himself curated the exhibition “Kōgei Futurists” in 2012. These types of activities recall Meji Government policies, such as "Rich Country, Strong Army"; "Promoting New Industries"; and "Cultural Enlightenment."
The tragedy of the major players in Kōgei, or more specifically the "modern citizens" of Japanese society, is they are bound by the chains of a false framework. We need to leave behind this subservience created through pseudo-modernization and liberate ourselves by advocating for the notion of an object's intrinsic value.
【Session1-2 Literature and Art 6, Multipurpose Studio/15:50-16:20】
Japanese Fine Arts in Private and Museum Collections in Kharkiv, Ukraine
Kharkiv State Academy of Culture
It seems to have been the foundation of the Kharkiv National University by V. N. Karazin (1773-1842) that made Kharkiv the ‘cradle’ of oriental studies in Ukraine. It was the University premises that first housed the so-called ‘oriental study’ with its collection of ancient oriental manuscripts eventually supplemented by a collection of arts. It was on the basis of this collection that, in 1920s, the All-Ukrainian Scientific Association of Orientalists intended to set up a museum of oriental arts.
The reprisals of the Stalin regime in the 1930s virtually put an end to the noble beginnings with the oriental research institutions closed and leading researchers put before the firing squad. A part of the collection is known to have been exhibited at the Kharkiv Museum of Fine Arts, until WWII when the museum collection was lost.
The democratic developments in the then USSR in the 1980s in the so-called Perestroika period with the subsequent evolvement of Ukraine as an independent country seemed to give a new lease of life to artistic initiative and collecting in particular. In this connection worth mentioning is the ‘4-Block’ triennale itinerary exhibition of ‘ecological’ posters in commemoration of the Chernobyl disaster which led to the build-up of the collection of Japanese ecological posters.
The very approach to collecting has also undergone a substantial change with private collectors: from the mere appreciation of what is regarded as an ‘exotic’ culture and random purchase of the related items to a comprehensive study of Japanese culture, research initiatives and exhibition projects. The true pioneer here seems to be Oleksandr Feldman. His collection of Japanese miniature plastic arts (okimono) includes artworks by acclaimed masters, whose works were selected to present Japan at the World Industrial Fairs at the turn of XIX – XX cc.
Worthy of attention are also the separate samples of ancient netsuke, cast metal items, and kimono in smaller private collections of appreciators of Japanese arts in Kharkiv.
【Session1-2 Literature and Art 7, Multipurpose Studio/16:20-16:50】
Seisuke Ikeda and his Collection
This presentation discusses the rise and fall of Japanese
art dealer Seisuke Ikeda, tracing his collection from the late 19th century to
the early 20ht century. Investigation of his life and collection helps us
better understand how Japanese arts and crafts were introduced overseas and
accepted in Europe and America. Ikeda made a fortune by exporting and selling
antiques, arts and crafts to foreign visitors to Kyoto. The late 19th century was
the time when the Japanese government promoted exports of Japanese arts and
crafts, which provided impetus to Ikeda.
My presentation consists of three parts. First, I will briefly explain his life, based on historical documents at that time. The second part describes about the end of his once flourished business and the auction of Ikeda collection as a result, which occurred in 1911 and 1919. The auction catalogues for these two occasions indicate not only the fact that Ikeda kept privileged relationship with Japanese artists but also what kinds of goods he dealt with. The third and last part discusses some characteristics of the Ikeda collection, a substantial part of which Mrs. Jane Stanford purchased in 1904. A founder of Stanford University, she used to be a good customer, buying a lot of Japanese and Chinese art from Ikeda. Several items of the collection can be still found in the collection of Iris & B. Gerald Cantor Center for Visual Arts, Stanford University.
【Session2-1 Culture 1, Conference Room1/12:30-13:00】
Ainu Material Culture in American Museums: Collecting History between the 1880s and the 1910s
Western museums have a long history of representing other cultures. This presentation will analyze the ways in which non-Western objects, especially examples of "primitive" art and artifacts have been contextualized and evaluated according to the changing Western context.
In textual analyses, for example, both the "primitive" culture and the West are often presented as monolithic, coherent and timeless. Thus, variations within the selves and the others are ignored. Moreover, overgeneralized terms, such as "primitive" or "tribal", are still in use as fixed categories, neglecting the fact that before the 1920s, the word "primitive" was applied in a much broader sense, including even Japanese, Egyptian, Persian and Cambodian high art. The recent scrutiny of numerous anthropological, museological and historical canons leads us to acknowledge contradictions, conflicts of interest, various arguments, not to mention changing motivations and given circumstances within any culture.
This paper examines the history of collecting Ainu material culture in the United States, focusing on the peak of the collecting activity between the 1880s and the 1910s. After a short review of the Ainu collections in the United States, my investigation will proceed to locate the collections in two respects as texts within appropriate contexts: (1) why American museums chose Ainu material culture over the material culture of other peoples; and (2) why they mostly collected the objects between the 1880s and the 1910s. For the latter, I will examine the relationships both between the museums and the nation, and between the US, Japan, and the Ainu.
The paper highlights the controversy over the treatment of non-Western material culture in American museums, including debates about the nature of ethnographic authority, also colonial and postcolonial biases in the representations of other cultures.
【Session2-1 Culture 2, Conference Room1/13:00-13:30】
Okinawa migration to Mexico: from the beginning of the 20th century until today.
Emma Mendoza Martinez
University of Colima
The aim of this paper is to establish the historical framework of Okinawa and Mexico at the time of contract labor immigration in the early 20th century. Okinawa had been recently integrated to Japanese administration (1879) and Meiji reforms were later implemented in the former Ryukyu kingdom. Then, political, economic and social conditions in the Ryukyus were different from mainland Japan. At that time, Mexico was trying to expand and improve the national economy through concessions to the foreign capital in order to develop mining, agriculture and construct the national railroad. Japanese workers arrived at that moment. Although Okinawans left Japan looking for better opportunities overseas, the working conditions in Mexico were not as friendly as they expected. The mines in the north of the country were prone to accidents and explosions. And the severe weather, unhealthy living conditions, tropical illnesses, and low wages were predominant in the southeastern plantations. These conditions discouraged immigrants to stay in Mexico, but in fact, most of them entered the country just as a convenient way to reach the U.S.
Despite Mexico was the first country in Latin America where Okinawans migrated, Mexico’s pernicious historical developments and U.S. restrictive immigration laws were not favorable to the formation of an entrenched Okinawan community in Mexico. Moreover, Okinawan pioneers in Mexico were only men, and those who stayed in the country married to Mexican women, so descendants thoroughly assimilated to the Mexican culture. They didn´t learn the Japanese language, much less the Uchinanchu culture and Uchinaguchi language. Women arrived later, during the yobiyose period, however, preservation of the Okinawan culture and identity was not their priority. Anyway, later generations of Okinawan immigrants have tried somehow to recover the other half of their cultural roots. Preliminary findings of the Okinawan immigrants and descendants will be addressed here.
【Session2-1 Culture 3, Conference Room1/13:30-14:00】
Refusing to Identify Nation with Person : Humanistic Direction of Japanese Studies
Kogakuin University, Confucius Institute
I read an article written by a professor before, and one sentence of ‘One common concept must be found if humanity wants to save oneself’, remaining fresh in my memory, has been greatly inspired me. Based on my understanding, one common concept should also be found in the investigation of Japanese language, culture, history, etc. Moreover, attention should be paid to the common concepts in finding different points for studying Japan and Japanese. Otherwise, it will not be favorable for the communication as well as deviating from the human nature. Commonness between each other can be obtained only when the common points are found, which will practice the ideology of nobly holding together, and which the ultimate goal of the cultural study is also. At present, there are many books and papers related to Japanese affairs, but there is a tendency to mix up the country, nation and individuals. Society and culture tend to neglect the existence of individuality, blindly making judgment of the whole; will lead to the creation of extremity. The sentences such as how to about Japanese, Chinese, and American, are often heard. In fact, this kind of argumentation is not appropriate. We should analyze the reason of leading to this expression of Japanese nationality. Therefore, it is more significant to explore the reason than emphasize the results.
【Session2-1 Culture 4, Conference Room1/14:00-14:30】
Tradition Re-lived in Postmodern Lifestyle –
A Sociological Case of Matsugasaki in Northern Kyoto City
Bulgarian Academy of Science
The author proceeds from the idea that lifestyle creates social bonds between people; it plays a structure-determining role with respect to the different urban formations and their communities.
Japan has a developed postmodern society, and is a leader in postmodern urban culture. But despite of growing globalization, many traditional elements have still contunuing to play important role as basis of local identity and solidarity. The most significant among them are practices and rituals, connected with local festivals – matsuri.
The empirical basis of the theoretical analysis is survey in Matsugasaki, Northern part of Kyoto city during May-August 2012, based on the case study method. Observations and in-depth interviews were conducted on number of events, activities and initiatives during its festivals - Obon matsuri and Natsu matsuri. The choice of this particular local community was not coincidental: on the one hand, its lifestyle is based on traditional structures and elements; on the other hand, it is located in postmodern urban environment and the local people are living postmodern and dynamic life.
The goal of the paper is to study the role and place of tradition in investigated local community lifestyle and the factors that enable its continuing presence in local actors’ postmodern life. As a result of analysis the conclusions will be made concerning local identity making and persistence during centuries, as well as it importance for building and strengthening the local solidarity.
【Session2-2 Culture 5, Conference Room1/14:50-15:20】
A study on Japanese learners’ cross-cultural understanding at a university in Hong Kong-From the analysis of reflective activities at a class of Japanese Culture-
Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University
This research examined the description of reflection activities of learners from a Japanese culture class held in a university in Hong Kong in order to investigate their perceptions of different culture.
The class consisted of lectures and tutorial classes, covering the topics related to Japanese traditional and popular culture such as ‘Traditional Art’ and ‘Modern Pop Culture’. After each topic was presented, learners completed reflection sheets to reflect about their learning by their prior knowledge of the topic, new leaning about the topic after class and particular points about the topic that they want to study further. The teacher then collected the sheets form the students, and returned them to the sheets after writing the teacher’s remarks.
The analysis of the learners` description suggested the existence of stereotype among learners` view-point towards different culture, the possibility of creating new view-point towards their own culture through learning different culture and the importance of learning different culture by experience.
【Session2-2 Culture 6, Conference Room1/15:20-15:50】
The Bridget Jones syndrome, made in Japan
On the difficulty to find or to keep a spouse :
Comparing the situation in France and in Japan
Sophia University, Tokyo
This presentation will focus on the research I have done for a chapter of a book I published in 2010 under the title, Japon la crise des modèles.
When Helen Fisher demonstrated in Anatomy of Love, that romantic love does not last more than four years, French readers approved her findings, as hardly anybody believed in lifelong monogamy any more.
Although Japanese women don't believe either in the Fairytale Prince, they nevertheless still share a strong longing for marriage (結婚願望), for Japan is a country where thirty or forty something singletons (アラサー, アラフォー) are likely to be stigmatized in the work place, their community, not to mention their family. All in all, marriage is still considered to be a status symbol which leads to much rhetoric.
Although French women address marriage in a very cool, realistic and unromantic way, the sociologist Jean-Claude Kaufmann, has revealed in, The Single Woman and the Fairytale Prince (2008), that a French version of Bridget Jones is to be found among successful career women, when their biological clock urges them to hurry to find a mate....
In 2003 Sakai Junko ignited once more the debate around the sensitive question, which has been tackled again and again for over thirty years. In her best selling book, The howl of the Loosing Dog (『負け犬の遠吠え』講談社), which sold over 330 000 copies, Sakai sorts women into losers (負け組み) and winners (勝ち組), the former being single and childless thirty-something, the latter being married women with children, supposed to have it all. Still single at 37 (in 2004) and defining herself as a “loser”, the author ignited a backlash from housewives who didn’t consider that they had the best part. They considered that those who named themselves “losers” were the ones who enjoyed the brilliant and easy going life they longed for..
I will address what lies behind these debates. Could the postponement of marriage by Japanese women be explained by their strong desire to be shouldered by an understanding and reliable husband, an unresolved problem addressed in 1989 by Arlie Hochschild , about “who does what at home”.
Although the biological clock is felt by French and Japanese women alike, the declining birth rate (少子化) is more linked to marriage in Japan, which is not the case in France where the number of children born out of wedlock outnumbers those born to married parents (54,1%).
【Session2-2 Culture 7, Conference Room1/15:50-16:20】
About the listening to odor: personal fragrance, social smell
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Kansai University
The sense of smell has drawn higher attention in the Western academic world from the 1990th on. But it is striking that through all academic fields like philosophy, sociology or anthropology the Asian world has been left behind, though China and Japan have a long and rich tradition in the usage of fragrance in very different ways.
This talk aims to use some of the theories given by Western researchers like Goffman’s theory of Territories of the Self on the Japanese culture of odor. Especially the following questions will be discussed: how odor was/is used to form class hierarchies and political orders; how can odor enforce social structures or transgress them.
Starting with the Heian period and the Golden Age of Incense – as the beginning of this period is called – the focus lies on the social structure of Heian society and the ways of communication through odor between the court groups and the people. The personal odor plays a big role in this period. The second part of the presentation will point the change in the Muromachi period out, when the newly established art of kôdô (Way of Odor) marks a significant change in the usage of fragrance. The personality steps back in favor of the amusement in the group – the listening to odor as a play. Whereas the aristocrats of the Heian period mixed their own odor with many ingredients, the kôdô masters of Muromachi period burned mostly one incense wood. While Heian courtiers stand out of the people by odor, in later times the right handling of the art shows the higher class. The talk intends to show that the change of usage comes along with an altered view on the individual and new understanding of social class differences.
【Session2-2 Culture 8, Conference Room1/16:20-16:50】
Japanese Religiosity in Cuba
Girardo Rodriguez Plasencia
Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University
Elements of Japanese religiosity were first introduced in Cuba along with the Japanese migration to the Island, which took place particularly during the first half of the 20th century. However, the migrants’ religious traditions did not spread to the larger Cuban society, because of the scattered and minoritary nature of this migration. Even today, only certain customs of ancestor veneration barely survive in the Japanese community. It is especially from the 1990s that aspects of Japanese religiosity appear in the larger society, as part of new religious modalities also known as “New Age”. Zen Buddhism is represented by some small groups following a French master in the Soto lineage of master Deshimaru. Moreover, several groups and individuals combine their practice of Japanese martial arts with Zen meditation. Among the alternative therapies available in the country, Reiki healing methods seem to be significant, especially in urban areas. Finally, the Soka Gakkai movement is the most organized form of Japanese religiosity, with groups in almost each province of the Island. Despite the geographical and cultural distance between Japan and Cuba, participants insist in the Japanese cultural roots of these instances of religiosity, which they strive to conserve, though certain attempts of syncretism with the local religious culture is observed in some cases. The spread of Japanese religiosity in the larger society is not connected with the previous Japanese immigration. It is rather part of the globalization of Japanese religion, which –in most cases- reaches Cuba indirectly through Western-based groups and organizations with links to Japan.
【Session3-1 Language and Education 1, Conference Room2/12:30-13:00】
Humour and Play in Kansai Style Conversation
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Osaka University
Many elements of Kansai style speech can be found in Japanese comedy routines. Japanese comedians conventionally make frequent use of words, prosody, grammar, pragmatic markers and conversation styles from the Kansai dialect. Especially prominent is the Kansai style dialogue boke-tsukkomi, which is indispensable, and in fact the essence of the Japanese comedy routine manzai. In this paper I explore the characteristics of Kansai style humour, and then through corpus data and results from qualitative survey conducted on families in the Kansai area, I investigate the various play elements manifested in everyday conversation, and explore their functions. The results suggests that Kansai style humour cannot be be sufficient explained by western theories of humour because they lack a tsukkomi component. A Kansai native will infact not find a foreign joke funny unless someone throws in a tsukkomi-remark at the end. Furthermore, it seems that jokes, play and humour have a prominent position even in everyday conversation, and that Kansai natives are aware of their position in the boke-tsukkomi scheme at any time. The survey also showed that Kansai natives tend to think unfavourable of people not able to adapt to their conversation style, for example not being able to perform the tsukkomi, when someone has laid up the boke.
【Session3-1 Language and Education 2, Conference Room2/13:00-13:30】
Corrective Feedback and Learner Uptake:
Learners’ Response to Different Types of Recasts
Recasts as a form of interactional feedback have attracted considerable attention in SLA literature. While earlier studies reveal that recasts generally tend not to result in uptake as frequently as other, more explicit forms of feedback, there is little research that has classified recasts and at the same time analyzed their effect category by category. The questions which the present observational study addresses are: (a) are recasts susceptible to categorization beyond the classification attempted in previous research? (b) how frequently do teachers tend to provide various types of recasts? (c) how does each of those types of recasts affect the quality and rate of uptake/repair? Data were collected from teacher-learner interactions in communicative language lessons. 301 recasts detected from the transcripts of interactions totaling 14.7 hours were examined, and error treatment sequences were analyzed and categorized primarily by criteria used in previous studies such as length, degree of emphasis, intonation, segmentation, number of focus, and number of corrections. Also, the degree to which each type of recasts gave rise to uptake/repair was studied. Examination of the form of recasts resulted in the identification of a new type of feedback which previous research has not mentioned: what one might call ‘cue plus recast’. Although the evidence was far from conclusive, it at least suggests a possibility that the ‘cue plus recast’ is more likely to trigger successful uptake than recasts without a cue. The cue may be an element which makes the recast more explicit than a recast without it and, if that is indeed the case, then this explicitness may be the reason for the higher degree of uptake. The study thus suggests that, while recasts are generally considered to be an implicit form of feedback, they themselves in fact constitute an implicit-explicit continuum.
【Session3-1 Language and Education 3, Conference Room2/13:30-14:00】
Difficulties of Silent Pauses in Second Language
The present research is an attempt to study the difference of silent pauses production in French reading, read by native French speakers and Japanese student in French. We recorded 11 subjects reading French and Japanese texts and compared silent pauses duration and silent pauses location. It appears that Japanese students instantiated punctuation marks with a silent pause with a quasi similar frequency than native French. However, they made lot of unjustified pauses within sentences. It results an impression of disfluency and unnatural reading. In this study, we will try to determine if Japanese has an influence on reading French.
【Session3-1 Language and Education 4, Conference Room2/14:00-14:30】
The Role of Missionaries in Foreign Language Education in Modern Japan: From Nagasaki to the Imperial University
Tokyo Keizai University
Under pressure from the West to open Japan, the Shogunate started preparing foreign language education other than Dutch. Official foreign language schools like the Saibikan (the former Eigo Denshujo) English language academy in Nagasaki, the Kaiseijo (the former Bansho Shirabesho) for Western Studies in Edo, and the Futsugo Denshujo French language academy in Yokohama were opened at the end of the Edo Period, allowing Japanese to study English, French, and German in addition to Dutch. This provided the foundation required for modernizing academia.
It has been shown that Christian missionaries were widely involved in foreign language education in modern Japan. Some of the first included Hepburn, Brown, and Verbeck in English, and Petitjean and Mermet-Cachon in French. These missionaries brought with them the culture of the West that was part and parcel of Christian ideology: poetry, music, linguistics, art, medicine, architecture, engineering, and others. This knowledge from the modern West was used by the missionaries as a tool for their activities: it was their mission to not only spread their ideology, but also their culture. Therefore it was only natural that they would also play a role as language teachers.
This presentation first summarizes, using existing work, the overall trends in foreign language education from the late Edo to Meiji periods, then, to see how missionaries were involved with language education it examines the origins and changes in the involvement of missionaries in language education, using the activities of the French Paris Foreign Missions Society as an example. French language education was linked with overall missionary activity in Nagasaki and Yokohama in the Meiji period, and in the Taisho period it was incorporated into the Imperial University system as an elite course. In addition, this present will also touch on the actions of the missionaries responsible and the French government.
【Session3-2 Language and Education 5, Conference Room2/14:50-15:20】
Educational Achievement of Young South Americans in Japan
Despite that high levels of school absenteeism and dropout rates, and low education continuance rate have characterized Latin American children’s education in Japan there is a group of conspicuous achievers. Due to the peculiar characteristics of the Japanese public educational system, such as a relatively lenient elementary education with almost no grade repetition, very competitive examination-admission process for high school, and a wide gap between pre-high school and high school education, foreign guardians are often misled, realizing their children low Japanese proficiency and poor academic achievement only when they fail the high school entrance exam. The high-school entrance examination consists on an interview and a written exam. However, there is also a recommendation-based entrance exam, which has allowed many foreign students to see light at the end of the tunnel. Pertaining to higher education, in several universities there is an entrance exam modality based on high-school recommendation, in which student’s extra-academic assets are considered.
This paper attempts to assess the entrance examination process at high school level and university level. This exploratory work will be based on interviews to Latin American students who have studied or are currently studying at Japanese universities in the Kanto area.
The Change of Values of Japanese People Who Have Been Living in Italy,
Furnari Rosa Isabella
Catania’s University in Sicily
My sociological research aims to investigate the change of values of Japanese people (through as so called culture shock) who have been living in Italy, through the use of a questionnaire.The change of values can develop itself:
1)With the passing of time, (according the theory of World.Values.Survey.)2) With the change of environment (according the theory of cultural shock's researches),3) With traumatic experiences (according the theory of social psychology)
I did the research twice. The items of the scale have been drawn by the answers given from the interviewees in the first survey. I emphasizes the empirical investigation. Many of the cultural shock researches are belonging to qualitative research rather than our that is quantitative. The Items of the questions are created by the imagination of researchers only in order to validate the old theories. In this research, the questionnaire was created after 90 interviews based on open questions. As a matter of fact, once I noticed a similarity among the answers in the first survey I come to make the standard questions that will constitute the items of my scales in the second survey.
all these previous studies have always been done on small groups . But from the
standpoint of statistical calculation if the number of answerers is small
becomes empirically irrelevant. Also, "Empirical Analysis ", with its
194 respondents, is an incomplete search. If the Japanese Embassy in Italy said
they live about 10 000 Japanese, to make a valid work should interview at least
5% of this population.
Demarcating Borders of the Japanese Calligraphy after the Meiji Restoration and after the Second World War
In this speech I would like to shortly discuss and compare the formal and art-theoretical changes that have happened in the Japanese calligraphy in two periods: right after the Meiji restoration and in the postwar decade, focusing on the self-definition of the Japanese calligraphers and their placement within the system of Japanese art.
The first part of the talk will be dealing with the place that was allotted to the Japanese calligraphy after the coining of the term bijutsu, and the way it predetermined the development of this art form for the next decades. How did the calligraphers, such as Nakabayashi Gochiku or Kusakabe Meikaku, understand their place in the newly defined art system? How was the border line between calligraphy and painting scribed, that was from now on going to divide these originally very close phenomena of East Asia Art?
The second part of the talk will be dedicated to the redifinitions of the relations between painting and calligraphy as seen from the viewpoint of the avant-garde calligraphers of the postwar era, on the example of the calligraphers from the avant-garde group Bokujinkai. In focus will be their endeavors to bring the Japanese calligraphy into the context of world abstract art, in particular connecting it to the abstract painting from the US and Europe. How did the avant-garde calligraphers of the postwar era perceive their place and role in the general Japanese art scene, and how was it different from the calligraphers of the earlier generations?
【Session3-2 Language and Education 8, Conference Room2/16:20-16:50】
Japan Inside the Asian Tourism Market: the Geographical Approach on International Tourism and the Case of the Okinawa Prefecture
Jean Moulin University Lyon 3
For local economy, international tourism not only means an exploitation of natural and cultural resources, but also the creation of new employments, an economic development and improved human relations throughout the world. Perceiving this phenomenon as a globalization’s vector, geography analyze it in as a spatial system including tourist’s flows, transport and accommodation facilities and touristic resources, as well as imaginative representations of the space and political measures.
This approach is well spread in Japanese academic’s studies on tourism, especially since the 90s, however analyzes in Japan present a few lacks (issues in concepts and definitions, lack of homogeneity in the raise of statistics). Still that international tourism remains a priority sector to develop for Japanese government since the economic bubble explosion, in a sense of improving the revenue’s balance between inbound and outbound tourism, raising Japan in the top class rank of touristic (and economically developed) countries and revitalizing peripheral areas.
Considering those facts, my presentation would replace Okinawa, the most tourism-dependent prefecture of Japan, in this context of international tourism development measures in Japan. According to officials, tourism not only would 1) put the particular cultural patterns of Okinawa to a sustainable use; 2) induce important economic externalities; and 3) integrate this peripheral archipelago in the Asian market. International tourism as a “peaceful activity” would then deny the “military image” of the American military bases and the territorial issue with China concerning the Senkaku islets.
Through the analyze of the spatial system related to Okinawan tourism, all those points would be studied with the aim of establishing a perspective for international tourism in Japan and stressing the main issues which have to be resolved.
【Session4-1 Social Science and Other Subjects 1, Suekawa Memorial Hall/12:30-13:00】
Myths of Globalization: The Dismal Science and Japan’s Lost Generation
Since the collapse of Japan’s 1980’s ‘bubble’ economy, American media and self-appointed translators of Japan to the West have presented representations of a new Japanese generation marked by hybridity and moral corruption. Although in previous research I examined the subcultural images in Karl Greenfeld’s 1994 novel Speed Tribes and the anti-globalization sentiment they embody, similar negative representations of Japan have also appeared in the field of economics. Recent writings by economist Richard Koo and in Time magazine have vilified the ‘lost generation’ of Japanese they perceive, while warning America against becoming the next Japan, despite debunking by other media outlets of the idea that the American economy could stagnate in the same way. Ironically, the Japanese economy has recently drawn attention from the British Broadcasting Corporation and UK economists for its stability in successive economic crises since the 1980s, credited largely to Japanese social cohesion and non-American values, adding another viewpoint to this dialectic. Although social science traditionally does not engage with economic discourse, I intend to clarify the link between a nation’s values and its economic discourse suggested by Joseph Stiglitz. Finally, by tracing the progression from the mythic media warning that America should not become like Japan to the growing awareness of the strengths of the Japanese economy in times of crisis, I will analyze how media representations of negative imagery in supposedly objective economic discourse can be taken as an American reaction against the protective mechanisms of Japan, and the democratic regulations demanded by globalizing markets.
【Session4-1 Social Science and Other Subjects 2, Suekawa Memorial Hall/13:00-13:30】
The controversy on the legal sense of the new Constitution between the constitutionalists Miyazawa Toshiyoshi and Oda Asao: reflections on its meaning and legacy
The 1946 Japanese Constitution was adopted as a revision of the Meiji Constitution whereas it had all the characteristics of a new Constitution. The text was new, written in great parts by the GHQ of the allied forces, and it gave Japanese citizens rights that would have been inconceivable under the Meiji Constitution, new legal principles, a new distribution of power and above all, a new sovereignty. Where the Meiji Constitution bestowed power upon the Emperor (Tennô), the “revised” constitution placed sovereignty in the hands of the people as stated in its preamble. The “revised” constitution status spurred a lot of legal concerns in the aftermath of its adoption. It took by surprise the jurists who were expecting a less progressive text following the first Yamamoto’s proposition of revision. It is in this context that the constitutionalist Miyazawa presented his “Revolution of August” theory, which tried to legally justify the revision of the Meiji Constitution. At the same time, law philosopher Oda Asao, partly in reaction to Miyazawa’s theory, imagined a “counter-theory” called “sovereignty of Nomos”. A controversy would thus spark off between the two specialists, Miyazawa accusing Oda of trying to save the “kokutai” doctrine undermined by the new Constitution. Miyazawa’s theory finally “won” as it became the key theory amongst constitutionalists to legally account for the birth of the new Constitution. I will first discuss the relations between the two theories and show how the controversy was needed to establish Miyazawa’s theory in the constitutionalists’ doctrine. I will then draw parallels with other great constitutional controversies in Japanese theory to understand why controversies bear a special importance in establishing new concepts in Japan. I will finally discuss the legacy of this old dispute within the frame of modern constitutional law and explain why it still plays a major role in modern constitutional theory. It should allow a reflection on the role of theories in the modernization of post-war Japan, a reflection that will, I hope, stretch beyond constitutional theory.
【Session4-1 Social Science and Other Subjects 3, Suekawa Memorial Hall/13:30-14:00】
Utilizing Rivers for Chiikizukuri: The Case of the Takatsu River in Shimane Prefecture
Mountainous Region Research Center, Shimane Prefecture: Visiting Researcher
This ongoing research presents an account of the locally driven efforts of regional revitalization (chiikizukuri) in the Takatsu River Basin in Shimane Prefecture. The 81 km long Takatsu River is the cleanest river in the country in terms of water quality, and is popularly referred to as seiryû Takatsugawa. During the postwar times, the basin area in general has witnessed rapid aging and population decline—in fact, places like the former Hikimi Town (now amalgamated into the Masuda City), have some of the most severe population decline and aging rates at the national level. The area is often described as chûsankn chiiki, a landscape feature that inhibits growth of large traffic lanes and infrastructure. However, in recent years, the region has witnessed a remarkable flowering of locally driven, environmentally conscious efforts of chiikizukuri centered on the natural bounties of the river. Examples include michi-no-eki, where elderly women have taken a leading role, promotion of adventure tourism in and along the river, and eco-farming of local products. The Mountainous Region Research Center (run by the prefecture) has joined hands with an NPO: Andante 21 and local residents to create an interactive resource map of the basin, while the NPO itself is associated with surveying the linkage between the river and the hamaguri clams, a key local species that is steadily rebounding after a near wipeout during the late 20th century. In addition, local residents are actively participating in mapping riffle and pool sequences in the river. This paper surveys some of these chiikizkuri efforts in depth, through participant observation and intensive interviewing: and initial findings indicate that the geographical and demographical features of the area, which are generally considered inhibiting economic growth, present a unique set of opportunities to develop green tourism—and environmentally conscious regional revitalization in general.
CV: Attached with mail separately.
【Session4-1 Social Science and Other Subjects 4, Suekawa Memorial Hall/14:00-14:30】
The Government of Life and Aging in Japan : Mechanisms between Discourses, Public Health Policies and Actual Practice of Care
Jean Moulin University Lyon 3
The purpose of my research is to understand how, discourse, as well as policies about life, in other words biopolitics, structure the care of the elderly in Japan. To put in simpler term, to what extend is the Japanese cultural frame evident in the practice of care? In order to comprehend the set of mechanisms that connect the thought and the practice of care, I would try to analyze how the Japanese cultural frame is discussed, used or even reinterpreted in view of the current issues of aging. To clarify the links between biopolitics, culture and the practice of the care for the elderly, I would like to divide my work in two parts. The first one will be what we could call a “genealogical analysis” of the government of life and its involvement with the care of the elderly. The second part will be a fieldwork in a cultural anthropological perspective. In this fieldwork, I will apply the methodology of participant observation in facilities such as a geriatric hospital. I wish that my experience as a nurse will help me to get involved as much as possible with care workers and elderly, which would enable me to carry out the observation of the actual practice of care. In the end, I will confront my observation with the discourses and the biopolitics regarding the elderly in Japan.
【Session4-2 Social Science and Other Subjects 5, Suekawa Memorial Hall/14:50-15:20】
The World as a Game, Revolutionaries as Players. New political discourses in 2000’s Manga
Jean Moulin University Lyon 3
Since the 2000s, the discourse on manga has tended to focus on the idea that the medium offers ‘little narratives’ (database) consumption. In a postmodern approach, Azuma Hiroki or Ito Gô have thus discussed the collapse of totalizing discourse and the lack of representation of the world as a whole in contemporary Japanese comics. In this view, manga is nothing but a tool to satisfy the desires of a transparent readership devoid of any opinion on the world. Yet, Uno Tsunehiro has recently challenged this view by highlighting the role of what he calls the "battle-royalisation" of Japanese popular culture, that is to say the importance of the critical stance found in manga characters often faced with situations of danger, oppression and injustice.
In this paper, I would like to emphasize the political aspects of many manga from the 2000s where representations of society as a game can be observed. Series like Liar Game, Dawn, Ikigami, Kokumin Quiz Code or Gears have sometimes been analyzed as social criticism of contemporary Japan. However, such interpretations can also be overcome by considering them as alternative worlds that echo the dominant neoliberal reality, where the characters are ‘playing’ a game to survive. The way they ‘play,’ their decisions and choices modify the game’s rules and in turn participate in changing the world.
【Session4-2 Social Science and Other Subjects 6, Suekawa Memorial Hall/15:20-15:50】
Nanotechnology enhanced Harmony – Itô Keikaku’s Biopolitical Future.
Post-war Japanese science fiction’s fascination with the imagination of disaster relates to historical reality in a complex fashion. Susan Napier has notably discussed how it “rewrote” history in the 1954 movie Gojira, “enshrined” it in Komatsu Sakyô’s 1973 Nippon chinbotsu, or “erased” it in the 1988 animated film Akira. Focusing on a more recent work of Japanese science fiction, Itô Keikaku’s Harmony, this paper explores another possible view on historical reality: a future world where human experience has been made self-evident through (nano-) technological means. Harmony offers a bleak vision of a transhumanist future that was triggered by a nuclear disaster compelling world leaders to replace governments with medical administrations monitoring and keeping humans in perfect health within a frighteningly benevolent society. Itô plays with concepts from theories on Japan uniqueness and identity (nihonjinron) – especially wa (harmony) and amae (dependency), by processing them through the magnifying lenses of science fiction. The result is nothing less than a question on the nature and functionality of consciousness itself, which is made superfluous by the advent of a post-nanotech society. Harmony provides therefore a valuable insight into the ethical issues raised by nanotechnology as well as a sarcastic critique of a sterilized and commodified Japanese society.
【Session4-2 Social Science and Other Subjects 7, Suekawa Memorial Hall/15:50-16:20】
The Change of the Japanese Marathon Culture
Masters Track Association
It is said that the marathon
races of Japan changed recently. What would change?
I considered the changes of the marathon of Japan based on the media, the meeting essential points, and documents in this presentation.
As a result, I understood the following thing. Only some players ran marathon until 1967. And women, old and middle age men did not run marathon at all. Ome marathon was held in 1967, and, by the first running boom of the 1970s, the men of old and middle age came to run. However, there were still few women who ran. 1980 began, Osaka International Ladies Marathon came to be held and it was played a game women marathon by the Olympics formally . However, there were few women who ran.However, marathon was taken up by entertainment programs of TV of the 1990s. Beautiful women runners such as Mari Tanikawa and Rie Hasegawa would increase, and a lot of women came to begin to run. But the marathon was a thing of the athletes and was difficult to approach for general persons. However, Tokyo marathon began in 2007 and the marathon of Japan turned big turned big. The common persons came to want to run marathon by the expansion of the time limit. In addition, the marathon became a part of village revitalization, citizen-based town planning, and the sightseeing promotion not a meeting to merely run. In addition, the relaxation of the time limit and the relaxation of the qualification happen except some elite marathon meet, and the elite marathon meets are popularized, too.
 (Japan, The Crisis of the Models as Observed within the last 30 years), Picquier.
More recently, Frédéric Beigbeder removed another year in his novel, Love Lasts Three Years (L’amour dure trois ans, Grasset, 1997(a film was directed by the author in 2012).
 See for example, Matsubara Junko, 『クロワッサン症候群』The “Croissant” syndrome, 文芸春秋, 1988, followed by Tanimura Shiho’s『結婚しないかもしれない症候群』(The « I might not get married after all ! » syndrome), 角川書店, 1990.
 In, The Second Shift, Avon Books, 1989 [アーリー ホックシールド、『セカンド．シフト 第二の勤務―アメリカ 共働き革命のいま』]。More recently, The Time Bind : When Work Becomes Home and Home Becomes Work, New York: Metropolitan Books, 1997[タイム・バインド(時間の板挟み状態) 働く母親のワークライフバランス―仕事・家庭・子どもをめぐる真実―, 2012]
 Stats INED, 2012.