Despite the sumptuary laws promulgated by the Tokugawa shogunate to regulate the luxurious life styles of merchants and commoners, there were innovative new motifs and colors created to embellish kimonos throughout the Edo period. By the mid-Edo period famous kabuki actors and courtesans were among the fashion leaders. The visual representations of the Edo period kimonos tell us about the contemporary life style, the actual usage of the kimono or the context of the fashionable designs. I will focus on the gWhose sleeves?h motif, that allows us to study not only the contemporary kosode fashion, but the ways a literary subject was represented and re-designed in various art forms.
The motif is associated with a classical poem and was developed into a pictorial subject during the early Edo period, depicted mainly on luxurious folding screens. Most of the compositions show kosode draped across lacquer kimono-racks. I will demonstrate that the subject enjoyed great popularity through the Edo period among the commoners, to the extent that it was included in contemporary gKosode pattern booksh and represented in ukiyo-e prints and on lacquer boxes. I will highlight that the Tagasode motif depicted in the pattern books functioned to introduce new designs and contemporary fashion. In ukiyo-e prints the motif often was used as background , decoration, sometimes with the notion of recalling the past. The motif became widely used as an ornamental design during the late Edo period, sometimes without direct reference to the original literary background. I will follow the process of the popularization of the motif, reflecting the social and cultural changes of the Edo period. I will introduce several variations of the motif represented in different media and analyze the transformation of the design according to the function and purpose of the artwork.
The significant role purification rituals play in Japanese culture needs no further emphasis—any gesture that is in any way connected with the sacred is preceded by a purification rite. Pollution and defilement are eliminated through the use of three elements: salt, fire and water. By analyzing their symbolism within various traditional events, I shall try to determine how they act as a catalyst in the process of transcendence toward the sacred, and whether any kind of structural and functional relationship among the three can be identified.
My presentation will focus on hari-kuyō (gmemorial for the needlesh) from Awashima Shrine in Wakayama, the goma-taki ceremony at Gangōji Temple in Nara, the Yassai-Hossai festival from Ishitsuta Shrine in Sakai, the ceremonial ablutions performed before the tsuina-shiki at Nagata Shrine in Kobe and finally, the harsh suigyō (gpurification through waterh) that is part of the daily routine of Nichiren Buddhist priests during the one hundred days of aragyō (ascetic practices).
Although by no means exhaustive, my presentation is an attempt to prove that, beyond their well known purifying function, salt, fire and water fulfill a different role as well: they can become tools that open the gates towards the other world, magical elements that facilitate the transfer of various forms of sacrifice to the world of the gods and, sometimes, allow free passage between the two realms.
Institute for Japanese Studies, Tokyo
Kirinofs 2005 novel, often labeled a representative work of the enew proletarian literaturef, starts out in a nightly jungle, an unruly space which could hardly be more antithetical to the sterile clean Room of the industrial manufacturing plant the narrator has just escaped. The protagonist has not only lost his spatial orientation but also his memory and therefore struggles to (re)construct an identity, randomly appropriating various objects, names and a personal history. His hunger for authenticity and coherence – and the eventual denial of both – take on a larger meaning as the story progresses and the reader learns of his past as a temporary worker. Cheated into unfavorable working conditions and deprived of basic rights, he at the same time finds himself profiting from the subordination of others. I argue that this absence of clear-cut boundaries between exploiters and exploited can be regarded as Metabolafs main theme. In the proposed talk I will show that through setting part of the plot in Okinawa (thereby alluding to its quasi colonial past and neo-colonial present) and through pairing the protagonist from the mainland with a young man from a remote island, the topic of exploitation is abstracted from the actual workplace. Kirinofs analysis of power structures in the contemporary globalized world is as sharp as demoralizing: Power appears as obscure and diffused, impossible to locate and thus impossible to resist. The individual is left paralyzed with no way out, unable to resort to political ideologies as proposed in the 20th century proletarian literature. Hope for salvation thus becomes a scarce commodity in the stratified consumer society of kakusa Japan.
In 1893, desperately trying to find a source of income, Japanfs most famous woman writer of the Meiji period Higuchi Ichiyō set up a small shop near the Yoshiwara brothel district. Her story gTroubled Watersh focuses on the waitress/prostitute Oriki, a greatly misunderstood character who I interpret along with Ichiyo herself as examples of the subaltern, subordinate characters whose voices are silenced or contained within dominant discourses. As a female writer uniquely positioned within the Meiji bundan, Ichiyofs attempt to write for a patriarchal male readership parallels the attempt of the fictional Oriki to make her life story understood to her elite, modern client YUKI Tomonosuke. The dark, ambivalent ending suggests Ichiyofs own marginalization.
In order to understand the fictional Orikifs subaltern status, I situate her within the history of the sex trade and slavery in early-modern/modern Japan, a history that may be linked to the present through the recognition of Japan as a common destination of trafficked Asian women. Ichiyo herself rewrites the cultural history of Japanese sex workers by structuring gTroubled Watersh around CHIKAMATSU Monzaemonfs gLove Suicides at Amijimah (1721) only to radically reinterpret the relationship of the central characters.
Words such as gcourtesanh and ggeishah in English have served to naturalize the history of merchandizing womenfs bodies within a discourse of eJapanese culture and literaturef that obfuscates the violence and suffering of the victims. Ichiyofs unique position as the female head of her household, a highly educated but impoverished and increasingly ill woman struggling to survive enabled her to discern voices of similarly marginalized women that she intuitively understood would be almost impossible to communicate to her male readership. Her solution was to write of silence.
Osaka University, Ph.D. cand.
In most of Tōsonfs works, female characters are represented in connection with the male protagonist, who is usually an alter-ego of the author himself. Noteworthy examples are the object of Kishimotofs infatuation Katsuko (Haru), whose awakening to romantic love (and sexual desire) is described, as well as her subsequent marriage to another man, her untimely death and the effect these events have on Kishimoto; and Setsuko (Shinsei), dragged by the widowed Kishimoto into an incestuous affair and a long, tragic love-story that turns her into a social outcast.
Apart from the women romantically involved with the protagonist, numerous others are given supporting roles in Tōsonfs works; two of them, the older sister and the daughter, are chosen as main characters for short stories, too. In my presentation, I will focus on Ogen from Aru Onna no Shōgai, who has lost her husband and son, and is on the verge of losing her sanity; I will also look at the role played by her middle-aged, mentally retarded daughter Oshin, analysing the way their physical and mental shortcomings take away their femininity and social roles inside the gfamilyh. Furthermore, I plan include in the scope of my analysis Nobi Jitaku, which describes Sodekofs (the daughter of a widower) first menstruation, in order to show how bodily changes are forcing her to alter the way she relates to gfamilyh and society. Through my analysis, I will point out that, although the narrator attempts to describe his charactersf inner world, he leaves out some of the information concerning their perceptions and feelings. While this could be explained as lack of understanding on his part, it should actually be ascribed a completely different meaning, when regarded in relation with Tōsonfs growing interest in the emancipation of the woman by the woman during the Taishō period.
Waseda University, Ph.D.cand.
This study investigated how different degrees of frequency of the provision of recasts influenced the improvement in the accuracy of learnersf use of the past tense forms of regular and irregular English verbs. It also examined the difference in the types of uptake between two groups whose members were given recasts at different frequencies. The results revealed that although the three groups, which received consistent, limited and no recasts respectively, significantly increased their scores from the pre-test to the post-test, there was no significant difference in gains in accuracy scores among the three groups. It is conceivable that the participants in the first two of those groups were not aware of the corrective function of the recasts and did not attend to the reformulated morphological errors, and if that is indeed the case, it seems to attest to the implicit nature of recasts, that is, recasts have only a low measure of salience to learners and are thus likely to go unnoticed during their interaction with the teacher. In other words, recasts may have been regarded by learners as providing only positive evidence in support of their utterances. Furthermore, not only in the group receiving limited recasting but also in the group receiving consistent recasting, the most frequent type of uptake was gno uptakeh. This suggests that automatization, which is supposed to result ideally from the recast-uptake-repair sequence, nevertheless failed to take place even in the former group and that the performance in that group therefore cannot be attributed to automitization. It also supports the claim that recasts are a feedback type which does not necessarily elicit learnersf output following the correction or promote negotiation, i.e. interaction leading up to repair.
Shimonoseki City University
Several translations of F. Scott Fitzgeraldfs The Great Gatsby exist in Japanese, but above all, Haruki Murakami uses his individual style in his translation. Murakamifs unique style colors his concept of the characters in Gatsby, especially in regard to Nick Carraway, the narrator of this novel.
This presentation will clarify how and why his translation is distinguished from other translations and will also discuss the significance of the differences.
My study focuses on the field of prosody and more specifically on French prosody read by Japanese learners. When we teach a language, pronunciation is widely taught, but the prosody is ignored for lack of time or teaching methods. In linguistics, prosody is the rhythm, stress, and intonation of speech. I would like to show the importance of this field of research.
When a learner begins to study a language, he can legitimately wonder if prosody plays an important role when he speaks that language. Actually, it is fundamental. No matter how perfect the pronunciation is, if the intonation of the language in question does not match, native speakers will immediately consider the learner as a foreigner. On the contrary, if the learner has a good intonation, no matter how few pronunciation mistakes he makes, native speakers will consider these mistakes as a provincial origin, and the speaker will be considered as a quasi-native. This illustrates how the intonation and prosody play a crucial role in language learning.
By measuring the first formant and second formant with a real time speech analysis software like gWinpitchh, it becomes possible to clarify the characteristics of vowels. Using this technique, I will try to distinguish between Japanese and French pronunciation and mutual influences. I will try to compare the recorded voice of native speakers and Japanese speakers who are studying French. I will also show some typical examples of rhythm and stress problems and I will try to explain the reasons.
Soka University of America
This study aimed to examine the process of Japanese (as a second) language acquisition among American University students. It focused on investigating how their language proficiency, motivation, and cultural understanding change during their study abroad. The results showed advantages of the study abroad context in the area of cultural understanding (over the non-study abroad/instructed target language acquisition). Approximately 50% of the students learned to shed light on their own American culture versus Japanese culture. Approximately 20% of the students learned to understand Japanese culture in a critical way, as well. The results also revealed acute individual differences. Important practical/pedagogical insights will be discussed, as well.
Association of an Interchange of Child between Japan and China
I read an article written by a professor before, and one sentence of eOne common concept must be found if humanity wants to save oneselff, remaining fresh in my memory, has been greatly inspired me. Based on my understanding, one common concept should also be found in the investigation of Japanese language, culture, history, etc. Moreover, attention should be paid to the common concepts in finding different points for studying Japan and Japanese. Otherwise, it will not be favorable for the communication as well as deviating from the human nature. Commonness between each other can be obtained only when the common points are found, which will practice the ideology of nobly holding together, and which the ultimate goal of the cultural study is also. At present, there are many books and papers related to Japanese affairs, but there is a tendency to mix up the country, nation and individuals. Society and culture tend to neglect the existence of individuality, blindly making judgment of the whole; will lead to the creation of extremity. The sentences such as how to about Japanese, Chinese, and American, are often heard. In fact, this kind of argumentation is not appropriate. We should analyze the reason of leading to this expression of Japanese nationality. Therefore, it is more significant to explore the reason than emphasize the results.
Tuebingen University,Ph.D. cand.
First-generation Korean women who
came to Japan before WWII narrated their lives through a discourse of kosaeng
(elife of turmoilf). Their utterances of suffering captured a myriad of
experiences as women vis-à-vis colonialism, migration, poverty, wars, and
division of their homeland. Their narratives articulated a transformation from
the restrictive boundaries of traditional and immigrant womanhood to
negotiating agents who chose to accept or negate elements of two worlds as a
means of survival.
I argue that these womenfs multifaceted narrativesf are a form of self-validation and legitimization in contrast to a male-centered eauthoritativef zainichi history that regards womenfs experiences as inconsequential. The narratives juxtapose the dominant discourse of politics and policies with another aspect of the zainichi experience. They elucidate the personal and subjective as a means to relay to the consecutive generation that their transnational lives were a result of gfateh, but their choices of routes taken an act of conscious sacrifice.
How have second-generation Korean women internalized the previous generationfs stories in their own utterances and expressions of who they are as women? What prominent themes emerge within second-generation womenfs narratives that constitute individual consciousness and memory in distinction to the dominant discourse of the collective community? How does the first generationfs projection of self and the second generationfs interpretation, reflection, critique, acceptance, or negation of it affect their own views of themselves? This paper attempts to present a comparative transgenerational articulation of selves and emerging identities of women, their stories, and meaning within a transnational context.
Instituto Universitario Orientale, Naples
My propose for the conference is the presentation of a part of a wider study on the Russian Orthodoxy in Japan from the very first contact during the late Edo period to the death of the Saint Nikolai. I would talk about japanese sailors in Russia who were baptized and the real introduction of the Orthodoxy faith through the actions of Saint Nikolai in a first time in the chapel of the russian consulate of Hakodate, then in Tokyo and in other japanese cities. I would talk about his life and his activities of translations. I will point out his role during the Otsu incident and his relations with the russian church during the nippo-russian war. The last part of my propose in about his later years and his death and his canonization as Equal-to-the-Apostles.
Kinjo Gakuin University
Scary movie is a world-wide phenomenon in our modern societies. Through these films, film-makers attempt to exacerbate the audience's fear and anxiety by using schemes, patterns and symbols which are echoing back to a collective unconscious.
This process can use the simplest techniques such as visual or musical effects but also more complex such as references to folklore, religious beliefs, myths and legends which dwell in a deeper part of the human imaginative world.
Western movie industry has tremendously exploited this topic, nevertheless, in those films considered as classics, Fear end Evil are mostly symbolized by diabolic interventions.
As regards to Japan, scary movies are dealing with completely different themes such as family tragedies, ghost stories and curses.
In this study we will attempt to underline the recurring patterns used in Japanese scary movies. Thus, by analyzing and comparing two films "Ring" and "Dark Water" by Japanese film-maker Nakata Hideo we'll try to point out the different symbols and explain their importance. Finally, we'll attempt to visualize if those patterns can be related to beliefs and myths of the Ancient Japan.
University Caf Foscari Venice
the late Fifties and Sixties enon-artf movement, is the first truly global
avant-garde movement and the first (and last?) in which music played a
prominent role. The paper aims to explain the active involvement of Japanese
artists and musicians in Fluxus, evaluating how Japanese, with their
Tradition-rooted sensibility, influenced the Fluxus philosophies. Japanese artists,
including Kosugi, Shiomi, Tone, Kubota, Kudo, Ichiyanagi (Galliano 2006) and
Ono took part in shaping the movement, and most of them came back to Japan
bringing along their artistic experience. Fluxus events were held in Tokyo
during the Sixties and more infrequently until the Nineties.
Fluxusfs trademarks ? i.e. ambiguity between the cultivated and the trivial, tendency toward informal rather than conceptual elements, freedom from dogma, the possibility of ever new beginnings, nomadic life (also intellectually), the regaining of a corporal presence in art, a radical simplification in contrast to European linguistic complication ? might be read in the light of a special affinity with Zen Buddhism. There was a diffuse interest in Buddhism in U.S.A. after Second World War (Fields 1981). The U.S. Fluxus artists ?Young, Higgins, Brecht et al. ? all manifested a profound, even if outward and colorful, adhesion to Zen. It was perhaps this gcredoh which established a basis for mutual understanding, in search for an avant-garde expression of a new intellectual culture. Another important Fluxus feature, the elimination of perceived boundaries between art and life, strongly corresponds with some of the fundamental characteristics of Japanese culture i.e. the high artistic value of everyday acts and objects and the aesthetic appreciation of frugality. Along these aesthetic perspectives with their new and high relational meaning, the role of Japanese artists was fundamental.
Kharkiv State Academy of Culture
The key factors to exert most influence on the design involved a wide spread of Zen practices and the establishment of the samurai ethic code exemplifying discipline, austerity and honor as the samuraifs primary merits. The multilayer, loosely-descending raiment gave way to a sharply outlined silhouette due to the tight wrapping of the kimono round the figure. The hectic pace of living in the Meiji and Thaisho periods added to further simplification of the national costume.
The minimalism of the interior of a Japanese housing reflected in the perception of the kimono as a costly and valuable item. When hung on a special stand the kimono could serve as a changeable screen, thus integrated in the interior décor. No less interesting is a discernable link between the kimono and easel painting and xylography. In the Edo period, alongside the proven floral motifs, the kimono artists began to resort to incorporating a hieroglyphic script into the pattern, thus making a textual reference to an old legend or tale, a historical novel or a piece from the No theatre performance.
The Meiji reforms meliorated the existing ranks making all items of clothing equally accessible to the entire society. The disbandment of the outdated social ranking system brought forth such new concepts as reiso (the appropriate, or polite, clothing) and kimono-no kaku (level of clothing). The knowledge of reiso is of major importance in estimating the occasion as for the true Japanese clothing is not a medium of self-expression, but a tacit way to convey respect to and establish rapport with the others, thus creating a harmonious entity. Since 1960s, however, another term, sodo (gthe way to put on a kimonoh), has been gaining in popularity. According to Yamanaka Noryo, the sodo practice implies an endless way of self-development, reverence to the elderly, filial piety and self-discipline.
The twentieth century saw exploding increase in traffic of peoples and their cultures, whose speed and spread across regional and national boundaries were unprecedented and ever accelerating. In order to capture this quite essential twentieth-century-ness, this paper focuses on international tourism, its influences on material culture. More precisely, this paper discusses kimono made exclusively for export, including kimono-shaped garments and kimono-related objects made as tourist art, souvenirs for foreigners, and those produced and consumed in foreign countries, as well as their visual representations. Sensitive to foreignerfs demands, including their desires for exotic objects, kimono produced for the international market embody cross-cultural encounters.
demonstrate how these souvenirs and exports crossed national as well as
cultural boundaries in twentieth-century ways, the paper focuses on
international tourists as active agents--how historically and socio-culturally
conditioned agents formed and circulated their cultural babbles across certain
regions, and how that circulation contributed to cultural production, i.e.,
kimono culture in the twentieth century in this case.
a case study, the paper takes American GIs, who grew up in the early twentieth
century and were later dispatched to the Asian-Pacific region, including
Hawaiʻi where the headquarters of the U.S. Pacific Fleet was located, and Japan
after WWII. I will first elucidate what kind of cross-cultural experience and
understanding the GIs had with gJapanese goodsh before being dispatched. Then,
following their move, I will examine aloha shirts in Hawaii, and suka-jan and
happy coats in Japan. With this case study, I propose a theoretical framework
to complement cultural anthropologyfs disciplinarily conventional one that
still tends to stay on the locals, i.e., spatialized cultures, to interact with
or be affected by the global.
At the turn of the millennium, gnanoh has become the new scientific catchword: fresh born nanotechnology is expected to revolutionize the world, for better or worse. Future scenarios building on its promises are so far-reaching that they look like science fiction, while being convincing enough to prompt a debate on the possible social and ethical implications.
However, such a reflection becomes in turn highly theoretical and intrinsically future-oriented, science fictional indeed! Berne (2008) has called it moral imagination, and has examined the use of science fiction works to teach ethic classes. The critical perspectives offered by science fiction are unique precisely because it relates science to the public, providing images and metaphors that help make sense of the increasingly rapid technological changes.
Despite its very rich tradition, going back to the Meiji period and the birth of the scientific novel (Kagakushôsetsu), the irregular detective fiction (henkaku tantei shôsetsu) of the Taishô area, and the rise of the modern SF genre in the late 1950fs, little attention has been paid to Japanese prose science fictionc A surprising fact since Japan has emerged in the 1980fs as the very metaphor for hyper technology consumerism in the western imagination (Tatsumi, 2006).
The aim of this paper is therefore to examine how nanotechnology is represented in Japanese sf and how its narratives have evolved over time. I will discuss Aramakifs short story Soft Clock (Yawarakai Tokei) and its surrealist flabby engineering, Tsutsuifs oneiric metafiction Paprika, Kajiofs spiritual allegory How Much God Loved Man (Kami ha ikani hito o aishitaka) and Itôfs nanotopia Harmony. By doing so, I will try to underline the multifariousness of Japanese sf and the value of its points of view when considering both the ethical issues of nanotechnologyfs implications and the cultural issues of Japanese attitude towards technoscience.
Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University, Ph.D. cand.
Japanese river basins underwent massive change due to human intervention during the post war economic development. However, a coalescence of civilian awareness and state initiatives to protect basin environments led to a reappraisal of human designing of the countryfs rivers, beginning in the 1990s. A new River Law was formulated in 1997, and the state opened up gradually to civilian participation in basin governance issues. Today, two decades have passed since the beginning of this state-civil society partnership in basin governance issues, but has the promise of basin oriented governance been fulfilled? Based on an empirical research on the Kizu River basin in the Kinki region, this paper finds that the emerging pattern of basin governance has been a patchwork pattern, which has fallen short of full appreciation of natural components of river basins. The main forms of intervention in river regimes are dams and encasement of river channels, growth era legacies that continue till today. The state commitment to decades old dam projects have not only bled financial resources, but also hindered the full implementation of the spirit of the 1997 River Law. While demands for less human intervention upon river regimes have been kept alive mostly by civilian organizations such as NPOs, the scope of their activities rarely extend beyond one river basin, resulting in a continued dominance of the state policymaking apparatus when it comes to designing river valley projects. The study concludes that in two decades since its inception, the idea of environment oriented river governance remains largely unfulfilled, and while there are promises that large dams may soon become a matter of the past, they will continue to have an immense impact on the countryfs river basins in the near future.
Hanoi National University of Education
Generally Vietnam continued to hold an important place in Japanfs foreign policy in Southeast Asia region since the end of the Vietnam War. For one thing, although Japan tried to increase its voice in this area, the Japanese attitude was still deliberate, and especially in this paper it was characterized by a complicated policy-making process in connection with external factors. The paper then examines the continuities and changes in Japanese foreign policy after the Vietnam War. It also provides an overview of previously unexplored approaches and diplomatic strategies Japanese policy makers applied to their relations with Vietnam. To the end, the paper will draw conclusions about Japan's diplomatic style and policy decision-making toward Vietnam as a way to develop a better Vietnam-Japan relationship nowadays.
Doshisha University, Ph.D. cand.
In the process of economic globalization, the role of international organizations as the coordinator not only between nationals but also between nationals, private sectors and NGOs has become increasingly important. While Japan joined the UN in 1956, how have the international organizations been positioning in Japanfs foreign policy? This presentation considers the positioning of international organizations in Japanfs foreign policy thorough the personnel system. The Japanese government reckons that the higher the number of Japanese professionals in international organizations, the stronger Japanfs presence in international society. Hence, several systems related to the personnel were created and put in practice. There are various ways to get a job in the international organizations; however, Japanese ministry of foreign affairs is in charge of one of the reception for recruitment. Although, when professionals are employed in IO, they are requested to work for international society but for certain states. They are not required to be Japanese and they canft make decision as Japanese in their missions.
Based on such inconsistencies, this presentation aims to clarify what are the requirements for Japanese professionals in IO by the Japanese government. Conversely, what are the impacts on the Japanese foreign policy by the professionals? A magazine named gkokusaikikansyokuinboshujohoh will be used to historically overlook a personnel system of Japanese professionals for IO. Furthermore, the interviews were conducted to the government officials in the recruitment center for international organizations.
Trying to understand how "institutions" are recognized as legit by people has been the subject of an important part of sociology, sometimes called comprehensive sociology as in Weber and Durkheim works, sometimes redefined as the sociology of knowledge, in the works of Scheler, Mannheim and Berger and Luckmann. This sociological literature agree that « Institutions » in a broad sense (religion, law, economic and political systemc) have a need of legitimation in order to last and that this legitimacy is a social construction formed by the country culture and history. The two questions still in debate are how institutions gain their legitimacy and how social science can understand and analyze this process.
Weberian sociology offers an interesting take on these two questions. Max Weber described the legitimation process as what we could name a "three band" communication between the institutions' theorists, staff and users: the theorist gives the theoretical foundations of the institution's claim of legitimacy, the staff applies it, and users recognize and obey it. The weberian method to understand the legitimacy of an institution is to analyze the relation between the theorized claim of legitimacy and applied legitimacy by the staff.
I tried to define a method based on these principles to work on Japanese constitutional theories, my main research subject. This "sociology of legitimacy" worked well with a highly theorized institution as law, but I'm confident there is place to broader the method to other subjects as religion or political systems. Also, as legitimacy can be hard to analyze when the researcher share the same cultural background than the institution is working on, the sociology of legitimacy is a method suited for foreign researchers. To that extent, it could give hints to redefine the specificity of Japanese studies as a social science.
Japan Masters Track Association
for the marathon of Kansai, the history is old, Lake Biwa Mainichi Marathon ,
Osaka International Women Marathon have been held for a long time.
Tambasasayama Marathon, Fukuchiyama Marathon have been held for the citizens'
marathon. However, there was not urban full marathon except Sensyuu
International City Marathon.@The newspaper report was not reported
other than Lake Biwa Mainichi Marathon, Osaka Women Marathon, too. However,
Tokyo Marathon(urban full marathon) was carried out, and citizens' marathons
were taken up to local news pages, and the second running boom was caused.@And the marathon
boom of the Kanto district affects Kansa district, and Nara Marathon was held
in 2010, and Osaka Marathon and Kobe Marathon will be held in 2011, and Kyoto
International Marathon will be held in 2012.
I want to mention the news of the media(particularly the newspaper )about urban full marathon of the Kansai district in this presentation. The newspapers which I used for consideration were three major newspapers (the Asahi Shimbun, the Yomiuri Shimbun and the Mainichi Shimbun and the local newspapers as the sponsorship .
The result of analysis of the newspaper was as follows.DRegionality of Osaka is taken up in the articles about the Osaka Marathon greatly. Earthquake disaster is taken up in the articles about the Kobe Marathon greatly. The newspaper articles of the Kyoto Internationa Marathon take up the negotiations with inhabitants, and as for the article of the Nara Marathon, the anniversary of removal of the capital is taken up greatly. Those newspaper reports present the aspects unlike the newspaper report of the Tokyo Marathon. And it will be a notable point (the vocabulary analysis of the corpus shows it) those newspapers can be tied to the philanthropy of the East Japan Great Earthquake Disaster, and@in addition, The newspaper reports of four major marathon take a way of being conscious of Tokyo Marathon.. We understand it from the document of the corpus.
For the past twenty years Japanese universities have been under pressure from MEXT to promote harassment prevention awareness on campus. This paper will take a gbehind the scenesh look at the creation and promotion of harassment prevention awareness at a small private university in the Tokyo Metropolitan area. It will document how gon the surfaceh at least, the harassment committee made great strides in their commitment to harassment prevention awareness at the University. A commitment, which included expending money on harassment prevention leaflets, posters, training was given to advisors and harassment committee members, and time was given over to harassment prevention awareness during the orientation of first year students. In spite of this hard work, it became increasingly difficult to solve cases of harassment because of the complexity of the human relations involved. Or to put it simply, management did not want to reprehend management resulting in the continuation of harassment. Essentially, a fundamental lack of real understanding about the true nature of harassment was evident at committee level. This lack of understanding thwarted attempts to bring claims of harassment to a satisfactory conclusion often leaving everyone involved frustrated and feeling glet downh. The discrepancy between committee level discussions and harassment prevention promotion was a difficult problem to solve as senior management had the ultimate control over final decisions. gAge-oldh perceptions what of constitutes acceptable behaviour for men and women in the work place, hindered any real progress harassment awareness policies were designed to prevent.